A few fragments remain of an epitome by Marcianus of the eleven books of the Geographumena of Artemidorus of Ephesus.
Among geographers should be mentioned Posidonius (13-551), the head of the Stoic school of Rhodes, who is stated to be responsible for having reduced the length of a degree to 500 stadia; Artemidorus of Ephesus, whose " Geographumena " (c. Ioo B.C.) are based upon his own travels and a study of itineraries, and above all, Strabo, who has already been referred to.
He as well as Artemidorus and others accepted a circular or ellipsoidal shape of the world and a circumfluent ocean; Strabo alone adhered to the scientific theories of Eratosthenes.
Artemidorus (loo B.C.), quoted by Strabo, gives a similar account of the Sabaeans and their capital Mariaba, of their wealth and trade, adding the characteristic feature that each tribe receives the wares and passes them on to its neighbours as far as Syria and Mesopotamia.
According to Artemidorus (whose authority is followed by Strabo), the towns that formed the Lycian league in the days of its integrity were twentythree in number; but Pliny states that Lycia once possessed seventy towns, of which only twenty-six remained in his day.
The record of these recensions is preserved by two epigrams, one of which proceeds from Artemidorus, a grammarian, who lived in the time of Sulla and is said to have been the first editor of these poems. He says, " Bucolic muses, once were ye scattered, but now one byre, one herd is yours."
A larger collection, possibly more extensive than that of Artemidorus, and including poems of doubtful authenticity, was known to Suidas, who says: ` L' Theocritus wrote the so-called bucolic poems in the Dorian dialect.
This Theon is stated to have been the son of Artemidorus, the first editor of Theocritus.
The others poems, which possess no scholia and have come down to us from the other collections, would, according to this ingenious theory, be those which appeared in the larger collection of Artemidorus but were excluded by Theon.