The town was captured by the Seljuk sultan, Alp Arslan, 1064, and by the Mongols, 1243, before passing to the Osmanli Turks.
ALP ARSLAN, or [[Axan, Mahommed Ben Da'Ud]] (1029-1072), the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk, in Persia, and great-grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty, was born in the year A.D.
He assumed the name of Mahommed when he embraced the Mussulman faith; and on account of his military prowess he obtained the surname Alp Arslan, which signifies "a valiant lion."
In 1068 Alp Arslan invaded the Roman empire.
At Manzikert, on the Murad Tchai, north of Lake Van, he was met by Alp Arslan; and the sultan having proposed terms of peace, which were scornfully rejected by the emperor, a battle took place in which the Greeks, after a terrible slaughter, were totally routed, a result due mainly to the rapid tactics of the Turkish cavalry.
Romanus was taken prisoner and conducted into the presence of Alp Arslan, who treated him with generosity, and terms of peace having been agreed to, dismissed him, loaded with presents and respectfully attended by a military guard.
The dominion of Alp Arslan now extended over the fairest part of Asia; 1200 princes or sons of princes surrounded his throne and 200,000 warriors were at his command.
Alp Arslan, the most skilful archer of his day, motioned to his guards not to interfere and drew his bow, but his foot slipped, the arrow glanced aside and he received the assassin's dagger in his breast.
The wound proved mortal, and Alp Arslan expired a few hours after he received it, on the 15th of December 1072.
A new sultan, Barkiyaroq or Barkiarok, ruled in Bagdad (1094-1104); but in Asia Minor Kilij Arslan held sway as the independent sultan of Konia (Iconium), while the whole of Syria was also practically independent.
After the capture of Nicaea, the field-army of Kilij Arslan had to be met.
When Nizam-ul-mulk was raised to the rank of vizier by the Seljuk sultan Alp-Arslan (A.D.
Toghrul was succeeded by his nephew Alp Arslan (the Great Lion), who was buried at Merv.
Kilij Arslan had a palace there.
Arslan Tash, near Comana (Cappadocia), on the Soghan Dagh; two colossal lions, one with incised inscription.
Arslan-Tepe, near Ordasu (two hours from Malatia); large mound whence two sculptured stelae or wall-blocks with inscriptions in relief have been unearthed (now in Constantinople and the Louvre).
And Anthrop., 1908, probably came also from Arslan Tepe.
Arslan Tash, near Palanga; two rude gateway lions, uninscribed.
At Jerablus, Sakhchegeuzu, Euyuk, Arslan Tepe, &c. Columns, probably of wood, rested on bases carved as winged lions.
Arslan Tepe (Ordasu), Arbistan, Marash (above the modern town and near the springs), Beikeui, mounds, doubtless covering structures, may be seen, and sculptured slabs have been recovered.
The sphinxes of Euyuk and the lions of Arslan Tash and Marash) are not completely disengaged from the block.
The Arslan Tepe lion-hunt and certain blocks from Marash and Jerablus) being not more certainly wall-dados than stelae.
The subjects depicted are processions of figures, human and divine (Yasili Kaya, Euyuk, Giaur Kalessi); scenes of sacrifice or adoration, or other cult-practice (Yasili Kaya, Euyuk, Fraktin, Ivriz, and perhaps the figures seated beside tables at Marash Sakchegeuzu, Sinjerli, &c.); of the chase (Arslan Tepe, Sakchegeuzu); but not, as known at present, of battle.
The principal ruin is that of the palace of Kilij Arslan II., which contained a famous hall.
It may suffice to mention that, under the leadership of Pigu Arslan Israil, they crossed the Oxus and spread over the eastern provinces of Persia, everywhere plundering and destroying.
Alp Arslan, the son of Chakir Beg, succeeded his uncle and extended the rule of his family beyond the former frontiers.
Alp Arslan afterwards undertook an expedition against Turkestan, and met with his death at the hands of a captured chief, Barzami Yussuf (Yussuf Kothnal), whom he had intended to shoot with his own hand.
Malik Shah, the son and successor of Alp Arslan, had to encounter his uncle Kavurd, founder of the Seljukian empire of Kerman (see below), who claimed to succeed Alp Arslan in accordance with the Turkish laws, and led his troops towards Hamadan.
He, however, like his father Alp Arslan, was indebted for his greatest fame to wise and salutary measures of their vizier, Nizam ul-Mulk.
In 1117 he led an expedition against Ghazni and bestowed the throne upon Bahram Shah, who was also obliged to mention Sinjar's name first in the official prayer at the Ghaznavid capital - a prerogative that neither Alp Arslan nor Malik Shah had attained.
R r61); Arslan, son of Toghrul (d.
1175); and Toghrul, son of Arslan, killed in 1194 by Inanej, son of his atabeg, Mahommed, who was in confederation with the Khwarizm shah of the epoch, Takash.
The sons of the former, Alp Arslan and Sultan Shah, reigned a short time nominally, though the real power was exercised by Lulu till 1117.
After the great victory of Alp Arslan in which the Greek emperor was taken prisoner (1071), Asia Minor lay open to the inroads of the Turks.
Hence it was easy for Suleiman, the son of Kutulmish, 3 the son of Arslan Pigu (Israil), to penetrate as far as the Hellespont, the more so as after the captivity of Romanus two rivals, Nicephorus Bryennius in Asia and Nicephorus' Botaneiates in Europe, disputed the throne with one another.
3 This prince rebelled against Alp Arslan in 1064, and was found dead after a battle.
Barkiyaroq, however, on his accession (1092), allowed Kilij Arslan, the son of Suleiman, to return to the dominions of his father.
As the crusaders marched by way of Dorylaeum and Iconium towards Antioch, the Greeks subdued the Turkish amirs residing at Smyrna, Ephesus, Sardis, Philadelphia, Laodicea, Lampes and Polybotus; 1 and Kilij Arslan, with his Turks, retired to the north-eastern parts of Asia Minor, to act with the Turkish amirs of Sivas (Sebaste), known under the name of the Danishmand.
Kilij Arslan took possession of Mosul in 1107, and declared himself independent of the Seljuks of Irak; but in the same year he was drowned in the Khaboras through the treachery of his own amirs, and the dynasty seemed again destined to decay, as his sons were in the power of his enemies.
Nevertheless the Seljukian dominion was petty and unimportant and did not rise to significance till his son and successor, Kilij Arslan II., had subdued the Danishmands and appropriated their possessions, though he thereby risked the wrath of the powerful atabeg of Syria, Nureddin, and afterwards that of Saladin.
Kilij Arslan lived two years longer, finally under the protection of his youngest son, Kaikhosrau, who held the capital after him (till 1199) until his elder brother, Rukneddin Suleiman, after having vanquished his other brothers, ascended the throne and obliged Kaikhosrau to seek refuge at the Greek emperor's court.
His son, Kilij Arslan III., was soon deposed by Kaikhosrau (who returned), assisted by the Greek Maurozomes, whose daughter he had married in exile.
Dying in 1245, the joint government of his three sons gave occasion to fresh inroads, till one of them died and Hulagu divided the empire between the other two, Izz ed-din (Kaikaus II.) ruling the districts west of the Halys, and Rukneddin (Kilij Arslan IV.) the eastern provinces (1259).
After his coronation he carried on three successful campaigns against the Saracens and Seliuk Turks, whom he drove beyond the Euphrates; in a fourth he was disastrously defeated by Alp Arslan on the banks of the Araxes and taken prisoner.
ALI, known as ALI Pasha (1741-1822), Turkish pasha of Iannina, surnamed Arslan, " the Lion," was born at Tepeleni, a village in Albania at the foot of the Klissura mountains.
Khosrau and Shirin was inscribed to the reigning atabeg of Azerbaijan, Abu Ja`far Mahommed Pahlavan, and his brother Kizil Arslan, who, soon after his accession to the throne in 582 A.H., showed his gratitude to the poet by summoning him to his court, loading him with honours, and bestowing upon him the revenue of two villages, Hamd and Nijan.
In this poem, which was written 593 A.H., at the request of Nur-uddin Arslan of Mosul, the son and successor of the abovementioned `Izz-uddin, Nizami returned once more from his excursion into the field of heroic deeds to his old favourite domain of romantic fiction, and added a fresh leaf to the laurel crown of immortal fame with which the unanimous consent of Eastern and Western critics has adorned his venerable head.
Tchorgia) and Ambasus (Ambanaz); (16) Merus (Doghan Arslan); (17) Nacolea (Seidi Ghazi); (18) Dorylaeum (Eski Sheher); (19) Midaeum (Kara Euuk); (20) Lycaones (Kalejik); (21) Aulocra (in Dombai Ova); (22) Amadassus (unknown, perhaps corrupt: it should include Kinnaborion near Geneli); (23) Praepenissus (Altyntash).
Alp Arslan, the successor of Toghrul Beg, overran Armenia in 1064, and destroyed its capital Ani.
Before the marriage, however, he died, and was succeeded by his nephew Alp Arslan, who died in 465 (25th December) (A.D.