It is frequently used as a reducing agent: in acid solutions it reduces ferric to ferrous salts, arsenates to arsenites, permanganates to manganous salts, &c., whilst in alkaline solution it converts many organic nitro compounds into the corresponding amino derivatives.
Kryst., 1894), in his researches on the tetragonal potassium and ammonium dihydrogen phosphates and arsenates, found that the replacement of potassium by ammonium was attended by an increase of about six units in the molecular volume, and of phosphorus by arsenic by about 4.6 units.
In 1840 a paper on the phosphates and arsenates, which was clearly unworthy of him, was refused by the Royal Society, and he was so incensed that he published it himself.
There he made analyses of phosphates and phosphites, arsenates and arsenites, confirming the conclusions of J.
Berzelius as to their composition; and his observation that corresponding phosphates and arsenates crystallize in the same form was the germ from which grew the theory of isomorphism which he communicated to the Berlin Academy in December 1819.
Copper arsenate is similar to cupric phosphate, and the resemblance is to be observed in the naturally occurring copper arsenates, which are generally isomorphous with the corresponding phosphates.
Olivenite corresponds to libethenite; clinoclase, euchroite, cornwallite and tyrolite are basic arsenates; zeunerite corresponds to torbernite; chalcophyllite (tamarite or " copper-mica ") is a basic copper aluminium sulphato-arsenate, and bayldonite is a similar compound containing lead instead of aluminium.
Ferri arsenas, iron arsenate, ferrous and ferric arsenates with some iron oxides, a greenish powder.
Under like conditions arsenates only give a precipitate on long-continued boiling.
The salts of arsenic acid, termed arsenates, are isomorphous with the phosphates, and in general character and reactions resemble the phosphates very closely; thus both series of salts give similar precipitates with "magnesia mixture" and with ammonium molybdate solution, but they can be distinguished by their behaviour with silver nitrate solution, arsenates giving a reddish-brown precipitate,whilst phosphates give a yellow precipitate.
In a pill), a mixture of ferrous and ferric arsenates with some iron oxide, is of great use in certain cases.