How much of the story of Alexander's discovery of the sacred mountain of the Nysa and the traces of Dionysus is due to the invention of Aristobulus and Clitarchus (Arrian did not find it in Ptolemy) we cannot say.
It is true that our best authority, Arrian, fails to substantiate the traditional view satisfactorily; on the other hand those who maintain it urge that Arrian's interests were mainly military, and that the other authorities, if inferior in trustworthiness, are completer in range of vision.
The fragments are collected in the Didot edition of Arrian by Karl Muller.
324-361), printed at the end of the Didot edition of Arrian, and the Epitome Rerum Gestarum Alexandri magni, an abridgment made in the 4th or 5th century of a lost Latin work of uncertain date, combining history with elements taken from the Romance (edited by O.
And printed in the Arrian of the Coll.
5 So Arrian (iii.
The punishment inflicted by him upon the Getae, however, induced the Triballi to sue for peace (Arrian, Anabasis, i.
The natural features of Persis are described very exactly by Nearchus, the admiral of Alexander the Great (preserved by Arrian Indic. 40 and Strabo xv.
728; Arrian Ind.
38); the story of Thais is a pure fiction, and we may well believe that he repented the damage he had done (Arrian vi.
A later tradition, preserved by Arrian, derives Arsaces I.
Arrian p. 1, Miller, in Photius, Cod.
After two years (according to Arrian) he was killed, and his brother Tiridates, who succeeded him and maintained himself for a short time in Parthia, during the dissolution of the Seleucid empire by the attacks of Ptolemy III.
64, called by Darius Haumavarka); and the historians of Alexander mention a march through Gedrosia, where he lost his whole army but seven men (Arrian vi.
722), a tribe Ariaspae on the Etymandros (in Sijistan), who, on account of the support which they gave him against the Scythians, were called Euergetae (Arrian iii.
3.1), and a town Cyropolis, founded by him on the Jaxartes (Arrian iv.
I; Arrian, Anabasis, ii.
The origin and early history of the Parthian kingdom, of which we possess only very scanty information, is surrounded by fabulous legends, narrated by Arrian in his Parthica (preserved in Photius, cod.
1, and Arrian ap. Phot.
Its author is usually known as pseudo-Callisthenes, although in the Latin translation by Julius Valerius Alexander Polemius (beginning of the 4th century) it is ascribed to a certain Aesopus; Aristotle, Antisthenes, Onesicritus and Arrian have also been credited with the authorship. There are also Syrian, Armenian and Slavonic versions, in addition to four Greek versions (two in prose and two in verse) in the middle ages (see Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur, 18 97, p. 8 49).
Muller, in the Didot edition of Arrian, 1846), containing the genuine fragments and the text of the pseudo-Callisthenes, with notes and introduction; A.
Ausfeld, Zur Kritik des griechischen Alexanderromans (Bruchsal, 1894); Plutarch, Alexander, 52-55; Arrian, Anab.
Rev. ii., 188 7, p. 317 seq.; Niese, Historische Zeitschrift, lxxix., 18 97, p. 1, seq.); even the explicit statement in Arrian as to Alexander and the Arabians is given as a mere report; but we have wellauthenticated utterances of Attic orators when the question of the cult of Alexander came up for debate, which seem to prove that an intimation of the king's pleasure had been conveyed to Athens.
The eastern provinces of Iran went in 240 or thereabouts, when the Greek Diodotus made himself an independent king in Bactria(q.v.) and Sogdiana, and Tiridates, brother of Arsaces, a " Scythian " chieftain, conquered Parthia (so Arrian, but see Parthia).
In the early periods of the history of other countries this seems to have been the case even where the dog was esteemed and valued, and had become the companion, the friend and the defender of man and his home; and in the and century of the Christian era Arrian wrote that "there is as much difference between a fair trial of speed in a good run, and ensnaring a poor animal without an effort, as between the secret piratical assaults of robbers at sea and the victorious naval engagements of the Athenians at Artemisium and at Salamis."
It afterwards became a province (Margiana) of the Graeco-Syrian, Parthian and Persian kingdoms. On the Margus - the Epardus of Arrian and now the Murghab - stood the capital of the district, Antiochia Margiana, so called after Antiochus Soter, who rebuilt the city founded by Alexander the Great.
And Alexander (Arrian iii.
Whether the name was given in mere vanity to the barrier which Alexander passed (as Arrian and others repeatedly allege), or was founded also on some verbal confusion, cannot be stated.
Arrian himself applies Caucasus distinctly to the Himalaya also.
Above and below this sea, from Borsippa to Kufa, extend the famous Chaldaean marshes, where Alexander was nearly lost (Arrian, Exp. Al.
5, 6; Arrian, Anab.
ARRIAN (FLAVIUS ARRIANUS), of Nicomedia in Bithynia, Greek historian and philosopher, was born about A.D.
Arrian spent a considerable portion of his time at Athens, where he was archon 147-148.
When young, Arrian was the pupil and friend of Epictetus, who had probably withdrawn to Nicopolis, when Domitian expelled all philosophers from Rome.
Other extant works of Arrian are: Indica, a description of India in the Ionic dialect, including the voyage of Nearchus, intended as a supplement to the Anabasis; Acies Contra Alanos, a fragment of importance for the knowledge of Roman military affairs; Periplus of the Euxine, an official account written (iii) for the emperor Hadrian; Tactica, attributed by some to Aelianus, who wrote in the reign of Trajan; Cynegeticus, a treatise on the chase, supplementing Xenophon's work on the same subject; the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, attributed to him, is by a later compiler.
Pelham, "Arrian as Legate of Cappadocia," in English Historical Review, October 1896; article GREECE: History, ancient, " Authorities."
X., Alexander's despatch to Darius III.; Arrian ii.
See Arrian, Anabasis, vi.
Diibner's Arrian (1846); monograph by F.
See Arrian, Anabasis; Plutarch, Alexander; Diod.
The earliest mention of Sarapis is in the authentic death scene of Alexander, from the royal diaries (Arrian, Anabasis, vii.
The fragments, some thirty in number, chiefly preserved in Aelian and Strabo, will be found in C. Miiller's Scriptores Rerum Alexandri Magni (in the Didot Arrian, 1846); monographs by C. Raun, De Clitarcho Diodori, Curtii, Justini auctore (1868), and F.
Its chief city is called Tape by Strabo, Zadracarta by Arrian (probably the modern Astarabad).
About this time, too, Carthage made an effort for independence under Hanno the Great (538-521), the real founder of its fortunes; the old dependence upon Tyre was changed for a mere relation of piety observed by the annual sending of delegates (OEwpoi) to the festival of Melkarth (Arrian ii.
His power, however, was limited by the wealthy merchant families, who possessed great influence in public affairs; thus it was possible for war or peace to be decided at Tyre in the king's absence, or at Sidon against his will (Arrian ii.
Aradus presided over three subordinate townships (Arrian ii.
As a writer on field sports Xenophon was followed by Arrian, who in his Cynegeticus, in avowed dependence on his predecessor, seeks to supplement such deficiencies in the earlier treatise as arose from its author's unacquaintance with the dogs of Gaul and the horses of Scythia and Libya.
The capital of Cyrus was soon supplanted by Persepolis, founded by Darius; but in Pasargadae remained a great treasury, which was surrendered to Alexander in 336 after his conquest of Persis (Arrian iii.