Arrhenius, Lehrbuch der kosmischen Physik (Leipzig, 1903); (3) A.
SVANTE AUGUST ARRHENIUS (1859-), Swedish physicist and chemist, was born on the 19th of February 1859, at Schloss Wijk, near Upsala.
Arrhenius is specially associated with the development of the theory of electrolytic dissociation, and his great paper on the subject, Recherches sur la conductibilite galvanique des electrolytes - (1) conductibilite galvanique des solutions aqueuses extremement diluees, (2) theorie chimique des electrolytes, was presented to the Stockholm Academy of Sciences in 1883.
In 1887 Svante Arrhenius, professor of physics at Stockholm, put forward a new theory which supposed that the freedom of the opposite ions from each other was not a mere momentary freedom at the instants of molecular collision, but a more or less permanent freedom, the ions moving independently of each other through the liquid.
The evidence which led Arrhenius to this conclusion was based on van 't Hoff's work on the osmotic pressure of solutions (see Solution).
Arrhenius pointed out that these exceptions would be brought into line if the ions of electrolytes were imagined to be separate entities each capable of producing its own pressure effects just as would an ordinary dissolved molecule.
Two relations are suggested by Arrhenius' theory.
At present, measurements of freezing point are more convenient and accurate than those of osmotic pressure, and we may test the validity of Arrhenius' relations by their means.
We may take Arrhenius' first relation as established for the case of potassium chloride.
Arrhenius has pointed out that the coefficient of affinity of an acid is proportional to its electrolytic ionization.
(See Arrhenius, loc. cit.) The simplest and most important case is that of two electrolytes having one ion in common, such as two acids.
Such solutions were called by Arrhenius " isohydric."
The heats of formation thus obtained may be either positive or negative, and by using them to supplement the heat of formation of water, Arrhenius calculated the total heats of neutralization of soda by different acids, some of them only slightly dissociated, and found values agreeing well with observation (Zeus.
Arrhenius, Text-Book of Electrochemistry (Eng.
According to the investigations of Svante Arrhenius the osmotic pressure in atmospheres may be obtained by simply multiplying the temp rature of freezing (r) by the factor -12.08, and it varies with temperature (t) according to the law which holds good for gaseous pressure.
Arrhenius in 1887.
Ekholm and Arrhenius(11) claim to have established the existence of a true tropical lunar period of 27.32 days, and also of a 26-day period, or, as they make it, a 25.9 2 9 -day period.
Birkeland (19) supposes the ultimate cause to be cathode rays emanating from the sun; C. Nordmann (24) replaces the cathode rays by Hertzian waves; while Svante Arrhenius (25) believes that negatively charged particles are driven through the sun's atmosphere by the Maxwell-Bartoli repulsion of light and reach the earth's atmosphere.
For the size and density of particles which he considers most likely, Arrhenius calculates the time required to travel from the sun as forty-six hours.
Fritz, Das Polarlicht (Leipzig, 1881); (3) Svante August Arrhenius, Lehrbuch der kosmischen Physik; (4) Joseph Lovering, " On the Periodicity of the Aurora Borealis," Mem.
Arrhenius, by reasoning similar to that of section 5, applied to an osmotic cell supporting a column of solution by osmotic pressure, deduced the relation between the osmotic pressure P at the bottom of the column and the vapour-pressure p" of the solution at the top, viz.
Kohlrausch, and received a great impetus from the work of Svante Arrhenius, J.
Arrhenius, who hold that the union of toxin and antitoxin is comparatively loose, and belongs to the classof reversible actions, being comparable in fact with the union of a weak acid and base.