This conversion, which took place in 1374, appears to have been due partly to the effects of a dangerous illness and partly to the influence of henry de Calcar, the learned and pious prior of the Carthusian monastery at Munnikhuizen near Arnhem, who had remonstrated with him on the vanity of his life.
The largest towns are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, the Hague, Utrecht, Groningen, Haarlem, Arnhem, Leiden, Nijmwegen, Tilburg.
The two longitudinal lines are the railway den Helder via Haarlem (1862-1867), 1 Rotterdam (1839-1847), and Zwaluwe (1869-1877) to Antwerp (1852-1855), belonging to the Holland railway company, and the State railway from Leeuwarden and Groningen (1870) (junction at Meppel, 1867) Zwolle (1866) - Arnhem (1865)- Nijmwegen (1879) - Venlo (1883) - Maastricht (1865).
The four transverse lines belong to the State and Holland railways alternately and are, beginning with the State railway: (1) the line Flushing (1872) - Rozendaal (1860) - Tilburg (1863) - Bokstel (whence there is a branch line belonging to the North Brabant and Germany railway company via Vechel to Goch in Germany, opened in 1873) - Eindhoven - Venlo and across Prussian border (1866); (2) the line Hook of Holland - Rotterdam (1893) - Dordrecht (1872-1877) - Elst (1882-1885) - Nijmwegen (1879) - Cleves, Germany (1865); (3) the line Rotterdam - Utrecht (1866-1869) and Amsterdam - Utrecht - Arnhem (1843-1845) to Emmerich in Germany (1856): this line formerly belonged to the Netherlands-Rhine railway company, but was bought by the state in 1890; and finally (4) the line Amsterdam - Hilversum - Amersfoort - Apeldoorn (1875), whence it is continued (a) via Deventer, Almelo and Hengelo to Salzbergen, Germany (1865); (b) via Zutphen, Hengelo (1865), Enschede (1866) to Gronau, Germany; (c) via Zutphen (1876) and Ruurlo to Winterswyk (1878).
The administration of justice is entrusted (1) to the high council (hooge rand) at the Hague, the supreme court of the whole kingdom, and the tribunal for all high government officials and for the members of the states-general; (2) to the five courts of justice established at Amsterdam, the Hague, Arnhem, Leeuwarden and 's Hertogenbosch; (3) to tribunals established in each arrondissement; (4) to cantonal judges appointed over a group of communes, whose jurisdiction is restricted to claims of small amount (under 200 guilders), and to breaches of police regulations, and who at the same time look after the interest of minors.
Witkamp (Arnhem, 1895), is a complete gazetteer with historical notes, and Nomina Geographica Neerlandica, published by the Netherlands Geographical Society (Amsterdam, 1885, &c.), contains a history of geographical names.
In 1579 the northern and greater part, comprising the three "quarters" of Nijmwegen, Arnhem and Zutphen, joined the Union of Utrecht and became the province of Gelderland in the Dutch republic. Only the quarter of Roermonde remained subject to the crown of Spain, and was called Spanish Gelderland.
The towns were divided into four separate districts or "quarters" named after the chief town in each - Nijmwegen, Arnhem, Zutphen and Roermonde.
It has regular steamboat communication with Rotterdam, Cologne and Arnhem, and steamtramways connect it with the popular resorts of Neerbosch, Beek and Berg - en - Dal in the vicinity.
ARNHEM, or Arnheim, the capital of the province of Gelderland, Holland, on the right bank of the Rhine (here crossed by, a pontoon bridge), and a junction station 35 m.
Arnhem is a gay and fashionable town prettily situated at the foot of the Veluwe hills, and enjoys a special reputation for beauty on account of its wooded and hilly surroundings, which have attracted many wealthy people to its neighbourhood.
On account of its proximity to the fertile Betuwe district and its situation near the confluence of the Rhine and Ysel, the markets and shipping of Arnhem are in a flourishing condition.
The environs of Arnhem are much admired.
On the west of Arnhem is another pleasure ground, called the Reeberg, with a casino, and the woods of Heienoord.
Arnhem, called Arnoldi Villa in the middle ages, is, according to some, the Arenacum of the Romans, and is first mentioned in a document in 893.
The two main ridges of the Veluwe hills (164 and 360 ft.) extend from the neighbourhood of Arnhem north to Harderwyk and north-east to Hattem.
The principal centres of population, such as Zutphen, Arnhem (the chief town of the province), Nijmwegen and Tiel, lie along the large rivers.
Steamtramways connect Arnhem and Zutphen,Wageningen, Nijmwegen, Velp, Doetinchem (by way of Dieren and Doesburg), whence there are various lines to Emmerich and Gendringen on the Prussian borders.