At the time when further armaments were suspended, the effective strength of the Argentine navy consisted of 3 ironclads, 6 first-class armoured cruisers, 2 monitors (old), 4 second-class cruisers, 2 torpedo cruisers, 3 destroyers, 3 high-sea torpedo boats, 14 river torpedo boats, 1 training ship, 5 transports, and various auxiliary vessels.
As to the number of vessels, which fluctuates from month to month, little can be said that is wholly accurate at any given moment, but, very roughly, the French navy in 1909 included 25 battleships, 7 coast defence ironclads, 19 armoured cruisers, 36 protected cruisers, 22 s1oops, gunboats, &c., 45 destroyers, 319 torpedo boats, 71 submersibles and submarines and 8 auxiliary cruisers.
It was stated that, according to proposed arrangements, the~ principal fighting elements of the fleet would be, in 1919, 34 battleships, 36 armoured cruisers, 6 smaller cruisers of modern type, 109 destroyers, 170 torpedo boats and 171 submersibles and submarines.
2 c) is an active elongate grub with well-armoured cuticle.
Extremes we find various transitional forms: an active larva, as described above, but with four-segmented, single-clawed legs, as among the rove-beetles and their allies; the body well armoured, but slender and worm-like, with very short legs as in wireworms and mealworms (figs.
Kolbe, on the other hand, insists that the weevils are the most modified of all beetles, being highly specialized as regards their adult structure, and developing from legless maggots exceedingly different from the adult; he regards the Adephaga, with their active armoured larvae with two foot-claws, as the most primitive group of beetles, and there can be little doubt that the likeness between larvae and adult may safely be accepted as a primitive character among insects.
Two very small families of aquatic beetles seem to stand at the base of the series, the Amphizoidae, whose larvae are broad and well armoured with FIG.
The carabid larva is an active well-armoured grub with the legs and cerci variable in length.
The beetles are hairy and their larvae well-armoured and often predaceous.
The larvae in this family are well-armoured, active and predaceous.
The first larval stage is the "triungulin," a tiny, active, armoured larva with long legs (each foot with three claws) and cercopods.
This type of active, armoured larva - of ten bearing conspicuous feelers on the head and long jointed cercopods on the tenth abdominal segment - was styled campodeiform by F.
Numerous intermediate forms can be traced: the grub (wireworm) of a click-beetle, with narrow elongate well-armoured body, but with the legs very short; the grub of a chafer, with the legs fairly developed, but with the cuticle of all the trunk-segments soft and feebly chitinized; the wellknown caterpillar of a moth (fig.
These differences in larval form depend in part on the surroundings among which the larva finds itself after hatching; the active, armoured grub has to seek food for itself and to fight its own battles, while the soft, defenceless maggot is provided with abundant nourishment.
In conjunction with the association mentioned above of the most highly developed imaginal with the most degraded larval structure, it indicates clearly that the active, armoured grub preceded the sluggish soft-skinned caterpillar or maggot in the evolution of the Hexapoda.
Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., and the battleship " Messudiyeh " (9100 tons displacement) reconstructed by the firm of Ansaldo (Genoa) in 1902, and re-armed by Vickers, Sons & Maxim, formed the only really effective war-ships at the disposal of Turkey in 1910, although a few armoured ships in addition might still serve for coast defence at a pinch, and a few more for training ships.
The programme of construction which this initial expenditure was to cover was fixed at two battleships of about 16,000 tons displacement, one armoured cruiser of about 12,000 tons displacement, some few auxiliary vessels (destroyers and gunboats), and a floating dock to lift about 17,000 tons.
The armoured cruiser was to carry four pairs of 9.2-in.
The naval strength of the republic consisted in 1906 of a collection of armoured and wooden vessels of various ages and types of construction, of which three armoured vessels (including the two designed for coast defence), four protected cruisers, five destroyers and torpedo-cruisers, and half a dozen torpedo boats represented what may be termed the effective fighting force.
The loss of the armoured turret ship "Aquidaban" by a magazine explosion in the bay of Jacarepagua, near Rio de Janeiro, in 1905, had left Brazil with but one fighting vessel (the " Reachuelo ") of any importance.
The naval programme of the republic for 1905 provided for the prompt construction of 3 battleships of the largest displacement, 3 armoured cruisers, 6 destroyers, 12 torpedo boats and 3 submarine boats; and by 1909 the reorganization of the navy was far advanced.
In November Admiral Mello left Rio de Janeiro in the armoured cruiser " Aquidaban " and went to Desterro, the naval forces in Rio Bay being left in charge of Admiral Saldanha da Gama, an ardent monarchist, who had thrown in his lot with the insurgent cause.
On the following day the Boer attack on an armoured train at Kraaipan, a railway station in Cape Colony south of Mafeking and close to the western frontier of the Transvaal, witnessed the first hostile shot of a bloody war, destined to plunge South Africa into strife for two years and a half.
Though the battle between the two vessels was indecisive, its effect was to "neutralize" the "Merrimac," which had caused great alarm in Washington, and to prevent the breaking of the Federal blockade at Hampton Roads; in the history of naval warfare it may be regarded as marking the opening of a new era - the era of the armoured warship. On the 3rd of February 1865 near Fortress Monroe on board a steamer occurred the meeting of President Lincoln and Secretary Seward with Confederate commissioners which is known as the Hampton Roads Conference (see Lincoln, Abraham).
The British squadron consisted of the armoured cruisers " Good Hope " (flag., Capt.
The German squadron consisted of the armoured cruisers " Scharnhorst " (flag) and " Gneisenau " (both 1908, 11,420 tons, 8 8-in., 6 5.9-in., 202 knots) and the light cruisers " Leipzig " (1906, 3,200 tons, io 4.1-in., 20 knots), " Nurnberg " (1908, 3,39 6 tons, 10 4.1-in., 22 knots) and " Dresden " (1908, 3,544 tons, 12 4.1-in., 25 knots).
On the other hand, if he struck straight at Charleroi - the allied junction point - he would drive the "Armee du Nord" like an armoured wedge between the allies, if only he caught them unsuspicious and unready.
The latest change in the material of bridges has been the introduction of f erro-concrete, armoured concrete, or concrete strengthened with steel bars for arched bridges.
All these modern fortifications are low and thickly armoured earthworks, powerfully armed with heavy Krupp guns in turrets.
The larvae are active and well-armoured, upon the whole of the ' ` campodeiform " type, but destitute of cerci; they are predaceous in habit, usually with slender, sickle-shaped mandibles, wherewith they pierce various insects so as to suck their juices.
There is a powerful lighthouse, and since its cession by Great Britain to Germany, the main island has been strongly fortified, the old English batteries being replaced by armoured turrets mounting guns of heavy calibre.
The introduction of steel concrete (also known as ferroconcrete, armoured concrete, or reinforced concrete) is generally attributed to Joseph Monier, a French gardener, who about the year 1868 was anxious to build some concrete water basins.
The forts are constructed in concrete with armoured cupolas.
Armoured cruisers -..
During the first five years of the reign four line-of-battle ships were added and several armoured cruisers for the defence of commerce and colonial interests.
The Ansaldo shipbuilding yards construct armoured cruisers both for the Italian navy and for foreign governments..
It consisted in 1905 of 9 modern battleships, 3 armoured cruisers, 5 cruisers, 4 torpedo gunboats, 20 destroyers and 26 torpedo boats.
The earl of Mar, with a small force of heavily-armoured lowland cavaliers, stopped and scattered the plaided Gael at Harlaw (141 I).
The affinities of Palaeospondylus are doubtful, but it is probably related to the contemporaneous armoured Ostracoderms.
None the less, till Marathon the Persians were successful in discomfiting every enemy before he could close, whether that enemy consisted of similarly accoutred bowmen (as the Medes), of cavalry armed with the lance (as the Lydians), or of heavily armoured warriors (as the Babylonians, Egyptians and Greeks).
The nucleus of the army was formed of armoured horsemen, excellently practised for long-distance fighting with bow and javelin, but totally unable to venture on a hand-to-hand conflict, their tactics being rather to swarm round the enemys squadrons and overwhelm them under a hail of missiles.
The Portuguese navy in 1910 consisted of 1 armoured vessel, 5 protected cruisers, 2 third-class cruisers, 19 gunboats, I torpedo gunboat, 4 torpedo boats, 16 river gunboats, 4 transports and 3 training ships.
By the 1 The navy consisted of the" Georgios Averof,"a powerful armoured cruiser, 3 old coastal battleships practically modernized, and 16 modern destroyers and other torpedo craft, including a submarine; as against the Turkish strength of 3 small battleships (ex-German), one modernized coastal battleship, 2 light cruisers and 20 effective destroyers and torpedo boats.
Nevertheless Marignan was in the main the work of the gendarmerie, the last and greatest triumph of the armoured lancer; and as a fitting close to the battle the young king was knighted by Bayard on the field.