It must be borne in mind, however, that the designation " Catholic " was equally claimed by all the warring parties within the church at various times; thus, the followers of Arius and Athanasius alike called themselves Catholics, and it was only the ultimate victory of the latter that has reserved for them in history the name of Catholic, and branded the former as Arian.
The successor of Meletius was Euzoeus, who had fallen with Arius under the ban of Athanasius; and Loofs explains the subita fidei mutatio which St Jerome (ann.
Petri," " ubi Petrus baptizavit," " ubi Petrus Arius sedit."
Theodotus was excommunicated by the bishop of Rome, Victor, c. 195, but his followers lived on under a younger teacher of the same name and under Artemon, while in the East similar views were expounded by Beryllus of Bostra and Paul of Samosata, who undoubtedly influenced Lucian of Antioch and his school, including Arius and, later, Nestorius.
When Arius asserted the subordination of the Son to the Father, and denied the eternal generation, Athanasius and his party asserted the Homoousia, the cosubstantiality of the Father and the Son.
It was in the East especially that preaching flourished: Eusebius of Caesarea, Eusebius of Emesa, Athanasius, Macarius, Cyril of Jerusalem, Ephraem Syrus among the orthodox; and of the Arians, Arius himself and Ulfilas the great Gothic missionary, are all of high quality; but above even these stand out the three Cappadocians,Basil (q.v.) of Caesarea,cultured, devout and practical; his brother Gregory of Nyssa, more inclined to the speculative and metaphysical, and Gregory (q.v.) of Nazianzus, richly endowed with poetic and oratorial gifts, the finest preacher of the three.
Creed of Arius (Alexandria) .
He has been classed with Arians, but he endorses in his own way the homoousian formula, and denounces Arius as " Christi gloriae incapacissimus."
ARIUS ("ApfLos), a name celebrated in ecclesiastical history, not so much on account of the personality of its bearer as of the " Arian " controversy which he provoked.
Our knowledge of Arius is scanty, and nothing certain is known of his birth or of his early training.
2) indeed does not hesitate to say that Arius was chagrined because Alexander, instead of himself, had been appointed to the see of Alexandria, and that the beginning of his heretical attitude is, in consequence, to be attributed to discontent and envy.
However, Arius was ambitious.
When the controversy broke out, Arius was an old man.
Arius had received his theological education in the school of the presbyter Lucian of Antioch, a learned man, and distinguished especially as a biblical scholar.
It is this idea which Arius took up and interpreted unintelligently.
On the other hand, Arius affirmed of the Son that he was " perfect God, only-begotten " (irA pns OeO uovo- yEvils); that through him God made the worlds (aicvvEs, ages); that he was the product or offspring of the Father, and yet not as one among things made (yEVVnµa fiAA' oux (In ?v TWv yeyEvn,uhi ni).
Sozomen relates that Alexander only interfered after being charged with remissness in leaving Arius so long to disturb the faith of the church.
According to the general supposition, the negotiations which led to the excommunication of Arius and his followers among the presbyters and deacons took place in 318 or 319, but there are good reasons for assigning the outbreak of the controversy to the time following the overthrow of Licinius by Constantine, i.e.
Arius was not without adherents, even outside Alexandria.
In addressing to Eusebius of Nicomedia a request for his help, Arius ended with the words: " Be mindful of our adversity, thou faithful comrade of Lucian's school (vvXAowawitarils)"; and Eusebius entered the lists energetically on his behalf.
After various turns in the controversy, it was finally dicided, against Arius, that the Son was " of the same substance " (oµoouoacos) with the Father, and all thought of his being created or even subordinate had to be excluded.
Arius and the two bishops of Marmarica Ptolemais, who refused to subscribe the creed, were excommunicated and banished to Illyria, and even Eusebius of Nicomedia, who accepted the creed, but not its anathemas, was exiled to Gaul.
It only remains for us here to sketch what is known of the future career of Arius and the Arians.
In 330 even Arius was recalled from banishment.
During his absence Arius returned to Alexandria, but even now the people are said to have raised a fierce riot against the heretic.
Bishop Alexander reluctantly assented to receive him once more into the bosom of the church, but before the act of admission was completed, Arius was suddenly taken ill while walking in the streets, and died in a few moments.
The actual centre was formed by the Homoii, who only spoke generally of a likeness (6,uotorns) of the Son to the Father; to the left of them were the Anomoii, who, with Arius, held the Son to be unlike WO Amos) the Father; to the right, the Homoiousians who, taking as their catchword " likeness of nature " (6Aot6rrls ear' ou61av), thought that they could preserve the religious content of the Nicene formula without having to adopt the formula itself.
Judge David Davis, who knew Lincoln on the Illinois circuit and whom Lincoln made in October 1862 an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, said that he was "great both at nisi Arius and before an appellate tribunal."
The planets are near, and we know it by their not twinkling, 2 but science must conceive their nearness as the cause of their not twinkling and make the Arius in the real order the middle term of its syllogism.
A, from, prior, Arius, that which is before, precedes), (1) a phrase used popularly of a judgment based on general considerations in the absence of particular evidence; (2) a logical term first used, apparently, by Albert of Saxony (14th century), though the theory which it denotes is as old as Aristotle.
He was less successful in addressing juries, and towards the close of his career did not take Nisi Arius work, but in the court of appeal and House of Lords and before the judicial committee of the privy council he enjoyed a very large practice, making for some time fully Li 5,000 a year.
Theodosius, the emperor of the East, also professed the orthodox belief; but there were many adherents of Arius scattered throughout his dominions.
In works of contemporary art Averroes is at one time the comrade of Mahomet and Antichrist; at another he lies with Arius and Sabellius, vanquished by the lance of St Thomas.
Arius, a Libyan by birth, of Antioch by training (though earlier than the greatest days 'of that theological school), and a presbyter of Alexandria, represents the working of Aristotelianism.
Arius repre- asius.
Yet it seems plain that he considered Sabellianizing reduction of the Divine Persons to phases or modes in the unity a lesser evil than regarding the Logos (with Arius) as a creature, however dignified.
Arius himself still lived, and his friend Eusebius of Nicomedia rapidly regained influence over the emperor Constantine.
The result was a demand made by the emperor that Arius should be readmitted to communion.
During this period he took the side of Arius in the dispute with Alexander of Alexandria, and accepted what he understood to be the position of Arius and his supporters, who, as he supposed, taught both the divinity and subordination of the Son.
Meanwhile at the council of Nicaea he seems to have discovered that the Alexandrians were right in claiming that Arius was carrying his subordinationism so far as to deny all real divinity to Christ.
To this length Eusebius himself was unwilling to go, and so, convinced that he had misunderstood Arius, and that the teaching of the latter was imperilling the historic belief in the divinity of Christ, he gave his support to the opposition, and voted for the Nicene Creed, in which the teachings of the Arians were repudiated.