The arithmetical half of mathematics, which had been gradually growing into algebra, and had decidedly established itself as such in the Ad logisticen speciosam notae priores of Francois Vieta (1540-1603), supplied to some extent the means of generalizing geometry.
The nature of logarithms is explained by reference to the motion of points in a straight line, and the principle upon which they are based is that of the correspondence of a geometrical and an arithmetical series of numbers.
When algebra had advanced to the point where exponents were introduced, nothing would be more natural than that their utility as a means of performing multiplications and divisions should be remarked; but it is one of the surprises in the history of science that logarithms were invented as an arithmetical improvement years before their connexion with exponents was known.
Nothing shows more clearly the rude state of arithmetical knowledge at the beginning of the 17th century than the universal satisfaction with which Napier's invention was welcomed by all classes and regarded as a real aid to calculation.
This single instance of the use of the decimal point in the midst of an arithmetical process, if it stood alone, would not suffice to establish a claim for its introduction, as the real introducer of the decimal point is the person who first saw that a point or line as separator was all that was required to distinguish between the integers and fractions, and used it as a permanent notation and not merely in the course of performing an arithmetical operation.
The three subjects to which Smith's writings relate are theory of numbers, elliptic functions and modern geometry; but in all that he wrote an "arithmetical" made of thought is apparent, his methods and processes being arithmetical as distinguished from algebraic. He had the most intense admiration of Gauss.
Na-nun, one; nar, two; and ne', three, or variants of these; all higher arithmetical ideas being expressed by the word kerpn, which means " many."
Hence if all the energy supplied to the train is utilized at one axle there is the fundamental relation RV (I) Continuing the above arithmetical illustration, if the wheels to the axle of which the torque is applied are 4 ft.
He was thus led to conclude that chemistry is a branch of applied mathematics and to endeavour to trace a law according to which the quantities of different bases required to saturate a given acid formed an arithmetical, and the quantities of acids saturating a given base a geometrical, progression.
He took a passionate delight in the pursuit of knowledge from his very infancy, and is reported to have worked out long arithmetical sums by means of pebbles and biscuit crumbs before he knew the figures.
The most famous outcome of his inquiries is the law known as Weber's or Fechner's law which may be expressed as follows:- "In order that the intensity of a sensation may increase in arithmetical progression, the stimulus must increase in geometrical progression."
In mathematics, he was the first to draw up a methodical treatment of mechanics with the aid of geometry; he first distinguished harmonic progression from arithmetical and geometrical progressions.
Arithmetical groups, connected with the theory of quadratic forms and other branches of the theory of numbers, which are termed "discontinuous," and infinite groups connected with differential forms and equations, came into existence, and also particular linear and higher transformations connected with analysis and geometry.
In order to save arithmetical labour it is convenient to be provided with conversion factors for reducing variously expressed results to the standard form.
It may be regarded as based on arithmetic, or as dealing in the first instance with formal results of the laws of arithmetical number; and in this sense Sir Isaac Newton gave the title Universal Arithmetic to a work on algebra.
The distinction between algebraical and arithmetical reasoning then lies mainly in the fact that the former is in a more condensed form than the latter; an unknown quantity being represented by a special symbol, and other symbols being used as a kind of shorthand for verbal expressions.
The main work of Descartes, so far as algebra was concerned, was the establishment of a relation between arithmetical and geometrical measurement.
The association of algebra with arithmetic on the one hand, and with geometry on the other, presents difficulties, in that geometrical measurement is based essentially on the idea of continuity, while arithmetical measurement is based essentially on the idea of discontinuity; both ideas being equally matters of intuition.
The difficulty first arises in elementary mensuration, where it is partly met by associating arithmetical and geometrical measurement with the cardinal and the ordinal aspects of number respectively (see Arithmetic).
The harmony between arithmetical and geometrical measurement, which was disturbed by the Greek geometers on the discovery of irrational numbers, is restored by an unlimited supply of the causes of disturbance.
They are preceded by two sections dealing with the introduction to algebra from4the arithmetical and the graphical sides, and are followed by a section dealing briefly with the developments mentioned in ï¿½ï¿½ 9 and 1 o above.
Arithmetical Introduction to Algebra.
Order of Arithmetical Operations.
- It is important, before beginning the study of algebra, to have a clear idea as to the meanings of the symbols used to denote arithmetical operations.
- The equation exists, without being shown as an equation, in all those elementary arithmetical processes which come under the head of inverse operations; i.e.
(ii.) In the above case the two different kinds of statement lead to arithmetical formulae of the same kind.
In the case of division we get two kinds of arithmetical formula, which, however, may be regarded as requiring a single kind of numerical process in order to determine the final result.
So far as the nature of arithmetical operations is concerned, we launched out on the unknown.
Expressed Equations.-The simplest forms of arithmetical equation arise out of abbreviated solutions of particular problems. In accordance with ï¿½ 15, it is desirable that our statements should be statements of equality of quantities rather than of numbers; and it is convenient in the early stages to have a distinctive notation, e.g.
(2) The first step towards arithmetical reasoning in such a case is the introduction of the sign of equality.
Arithmetical and Algebraical Treatment of Equations.-The following will illustrate the passage from arithmetical to algebraical reasoning.
In the same way, the transition from (x 2 +4x+4) - 4= 21 to x 2 +4x+4 = 25, or from (5+2) 2 =25 to x+2= 1 /25, is arithmetical; but the transition from 5 2 + 45+4= 25 to (5+2) 2 = 25 is algebraical, since it involves a change of the number we are thinking about.
In addition to these, there are cases in which letters can usefully be employed for general arithmetical reasoning.
General Arithmetical Theorems. (i.) The fundamental laws of arithmetic should be constantly borne in mind, though not necessarily stated.
(i.) Arithmetical Progressions such as 2, 5, 8, ...
(v.) Permutations and Combinations may be regarded as arithmetical recreations; they become important algebraically in reference to the binomial theroem (ï¿½ï¿½ 41, 44)ï¿½ (vi.) Surds and Approximate Logarithms. - From the arithmetical point of view, surds present a greater difficulty than negative quantities and fractional numbers.
"), that the graphic method leads without arithmetical reasoning to the properties of negative values.
- (i.) An expression such as a.2.a.a.b.c.3.a.a.c, denoting that a series of multiplications is to be performed, is called a monomial; the numbers (arithmetical or algebraical) which are multiplied together being its factors.
It must, of course, be remembered (ï¿½ 23) that this is a statement of arithmetical equality; we call the statement an " identity," but we do not mean that the expressions are the same, but that, whatever the numerical values of a, b and c may be, the expressions give the same numerical result.
(iv.) In algebra we have a theory of highest common factor and lowest common multiple, but it is different from the arithmetical theory of greatest common divisor and least common multiple.
- (i.) Special arithmetical results may often be used to lead up to algebraical formulae.
(ii.) The solution of equations is effected by transformation, which may be either arithmetical or algebraical.
The principles of arithmetical transformation follow from those stated in ï¿½ï¿½ 15-18 by replacing X, A, B, m, M, x, n, a and p by any expressions involving or not involving the unknown quantity or number and representing positive numbers or (in the case of X, A, B and M) positive quantities.
(i.) The sum of the first n terms of an ordinary arithmetical progression (a+b), (a+2b), ...
These numbers constitute an arithmetical progression of the rth order.
In algebraical transformations, however, such as (x-a)2 = x 2 - 2ax+a 2, the arithmetical rule of signs enables us to combine the sign-with a number and to treat the result as a whole, subject to its own laws of operation.
The use of negative coefficients leads to a difference between arithmetical division and algebraical division (by a multinomial), in that the latter may give rise to a quotient containing subtractive terms. The most important case is division by a binomial, as illustrated by the following examples: - 2.10+1) 6.100+5.10+ 1(3.10+I 2.10+I) 6.100+I.10 - I (3.10 - I 6.100+3.10 6.100+3.10 2.10+ I - 2.10 - I 2.10 +I - 2.10 - I In (1) the division is both arithmetical and algebraical, while in (2) it is algebraical, the quotient for arithmetical division being 2.10+9.
- (i.) The results of the addition, subtraction and multiplication of multinomials (including monomials as a particular case) are subject to certain laws which correspond with the laws of arithmetic (ï¿½ 26 (i.)) but differ from them in relating, not to arithmetical value, but to algebraic form.
The divisions in ï¿½ï¿½ 50-52 have been supposed to be performed by a process similar to the process of arithmetical division, viz.
Even when the formal evolution of the science was fairly complete, it was taken for granted that its symbols of quantity invariably stood for numbers, and that its symbols of operation were restricted to their ordinary arithmetical meanings.