The aloofness and sulkiness of the aristocrats and landed proprietors he deeply deplored.
Both Houses of Parliament were in the main assemblies of aristocrats and landowners; but agriculture was ceasing to be the characteristic industry of the country and the Parliaold semi-feudal relations of life were in process of meat and rapid dissolution.
He came into notice first as an opponent of Pericles, to whom his advanced ideas were naturally unacceptable, and in his opposition somewhat curiously found himself acting in concert with the aristocrats, who equally hated and feared Pericles.
The aristocrats were the dominant party, and filled the highest offices of the republic, which, in the I 2th century, rose to great power, both on sea and land, by its wars with the Lucchese, Genoese and Moslems. In I I 10 Pisa made peace with Lucca after six years of continuous hostilities.
All the great aristocrats not only patronized the No but were themselves ready to take part in it.
The aristocrats also favoured the Revolution, but preferred to continue the government under authority from James II.
It, too, was frequently of very ornamental nature and served to carry aristocrats or officials of high position.
Like the French aristocrats with the reforms of Necker, they would not listen till ruin had overtaken them.
Caciquism or " bossism," government by local aristocrats, was the prime feature of village life in the islands during the entire period of Spanish rule and existed long before their arrival.
After Philopoemen's death the aristocrats initiated a strongly philo-Roman policy, declared war against King Perseus and denounced all sympathizers with Macedonia.
If the king or queen could either have had the political genius of Frederick the Great, or could have had the good fortune to find a minister with that genius, and the good sense and good faith to trust and stand by him against mobs of aristocrats and mobs of democrats; if the army had been sound and the states-general had been convoked at Bourges or Tours instead of at Paris, then the type of French monarchy and French society might have been modernized without convulsion.
But, although greatly strengthened, the Guelphs, who now may be called the democrats as opposed to the Ghibelline aristocrats, were by no means wholly victorious, and in 1251 they had to defend themselves against a league of Ghibelline cities (Siena, Pisa and Pistoia) assisted by Florentine Ghibellines; the Florentine Uberti, who had been driven into exile after their plot of 1258, took refuge in Siena and encouraged that city in its hostility to Florence.
The aristocrats, however, were infuriated against him, and summoned to their aid William of Sicily.
The Federalists were charged by the Republicans with being aristocrats and monarchists, and it is certain that their leaders 1 Even the Democratic party has generally been liberal; although less so in theory (hardly less so in practice) than its opponents.