His principal works are Historia Pelagiana sive Historiae de controversies quas Pelagius ejusque reliquiae moverunt (1618); Aristarchus, sive de arte grammatica (1635 and 1695; new ed.
DIONYSIUS THRAX (so called because his father was a Thracian), the author of the first Greek grammar, flourished about 100 He was a native of Alexandria, where he attended the lectures of Aristarchus, and afterwards taught rhetoric in Rhodes and Rome.
The most celebrated critics were Zenodotus; Aristophanes of Byzantium, to whom we owe the theory of Greek accents; Crates of Mallus; and Aristarchus of Samothrace, confessedly the coryphaeus of criticism.
A large collection of such curious information is contained in the Bibliotheca of Apollodorus, a pupil of Aristarchus who flourished in the and century B.C. Eratosthenes was the first to write on mathematical and physical geography; he also first attempted to draw up a chronological table of the Egyptian kings and of the historical events of Greece.
ARISTARCHUS, of Samos, Greek astronomer, flourished about 250 B.C. He is famous as having been the first to maintain that the earth moves round the sun.
Although the heliocentric system is not mentioned in the treatise, a quotation in the Arenarius of Archimedes from a work of Aristarchus proves that he anticipated the great discovery of Copernicus.
Aristarchus is also said to have invented two sun-dials, one hemi spherical, the so-called scaphion, the other plane.
See Bergk-Hinrichs, Aristarchus von Samos (1883); Tannery, Aristarque de Samos; also Astronomy.
Aristarchus (Grammarian) >>
Two critical editions of the Iliad and Odyssey were produced by his successor, Aristarchus, who was librarian until 1 4 6 B.C. and was the founder of scientific scholarship. His distinguished pupil, Dionysius Thrax (born c. 166 B.C.), drew up a Greek grammar which continued in use for more than thirteen centuries.
The most industrious of the successors of Aristarchus was Didymus (c. 65 B.C.-A.D.
The Alexandrian canon of the Greek classics, which probably had its origin in the lists drawn up by Callimachus, Aristophanes of Byzantium and Aristarchus, included the following authors: Epic poets (5): Homer, Hesiod, Peisander, Panyasis, Antimachus.
From about 168 B.C. the head of the Pergamene school was Crates of Mallus, who (like the Stoics) was an adherent of the principle of " anomaly " in grammar, and was thus opposed to Aristarchus of Alexandria, the champion of " analogy."
He also opposed Aristarchus, and supported the Stoics, by insisting on an allegorical interpretation of Homer.
The third volume includes, however, some theological treatises, and the first part of it is occupied with editions of treatises on harmonics and other works of Greek geometers, some of them first editions from the MSS., and in general with Latin versions and notes (Ptolemy, Porphyrius, Briennius, Archimedes, Eutocius, Aristarchus and Pappus).
4 seq., Aristarchus had the common reading ' taut, but another Homeric critic of note, Zenodotus, read for ' raoL, and this is supported by the obvious imitation in Aeschylus, Supplices, 800, who has The support which a reading gains from the evidence of the directly transmitted text and from the auxiliary testimonia may be called its documental probability.
It accordingly comments on the Sphaerica of Theodosius, the Moving Sphere of Autolycus, Theodosius's book on Day and Night, the treatise of Aristarchus On the Size and Distances of the Sun and Moon, and Euclid's Optics and Phaenomena.
In Aristarchus ancient philology culminated, as philosophy had done in Socrates.
Abridgments and newer treatises soon drove out the writings of Aristarchus and other founders of the science.
Thus we find that Didymus, writing in the time of Cicero, does not quote the readings of Aristarchus as we should quote a textus receptus.
Enough, however, remains to show that Aristarchus had a clear notion of the chief problems of philology (except perhaps those concerning etymology).
It is chiefly interesting as a proof of the confusion in which the text must have been before the Alexandrian times; for it is impossible to understand the readiness of Aristarchus to suspect the genuineness of verses unless the state of the copies had pointed to the existence of numerous interpolations.
This manuscript, written in the 10th century, contains (1) the best text of the Iliad, (2) the critical marks of Aristarchus and (3) Scholia, consisting mainly of extracts from four grammatical works, viz.
Didymus (contemporary of Cicero) on the recension of Aristarchus, Aristonicus (fl.
24 B.C.) on the critical marks of Aristarchus, Herodian (fl.
As these Scholia are derived in substance from the writings of Aristarchus, it seems impossible to believe that the story was known to him.
In the later Byzantine times it was believed that Peisistratus was aided by seventy grammarians, of whom Zenodotus and Aristarchus were the chief.
Two ancient grammarians, Xeno and Hellanicus, were known as the " separators " (oi xcop4"ov-res); and Aristarchus appears to have written a treatise against their heresy.
Aristarchus (Astronomer) >>
Aristarchus of Samos, Martianus Capella (the precursor of Copernicus), Cicero, Favorinus, Sextus Empiricus, Juvenal, and in a later age Savonarola and Pico della Mirandola, and La Fontaine, a contemporary of the neutral La Bruyere, were all pronounced opponents of astrology.
Aristarchus in fact concluded the sun to be not more than twenty times, while it is really four hundred times farther off than our satellite.
Between the time of Aristarchus and the opposition of Mars in 1672, no serious attempt was made to solve the problem of the sun's distance.
APOLLODORUS, an Athenian grammarian, pupil of Aristarchus and Panaetius the Stoic, who lived about 140 B.C. He was a prolific and versatile writer.
Panaetius was competent to pass judgment upon the critical " divination " of an Aristarchus (who was perhaps himself also a Stoic), and took an interest in the restoration of Old% Attic forms to the text of Plato.
To counteract, perhaps, the growing Lydian influence, Athens, the mother-city of Ephesus, despatched one of her noblest citizens, Aristarchus, to restore law on the basis of the Soloman constitution.
The labours of Aristarchus seem to have borne fruit.