Its area in 1906, including Tacna and Arica, and other disputed territories occupied by neighbouring states, was officially estimated.
With Chile the de jure line is that of the Camarones ravine which separated the old department of Moquegua (including the provinces of Tacna and Arica) from that of Tarapaca.
Upon the ports of Arica and Iquique.
Don Hipolito Unanue, born at Arica in 1755, wrote an important work on the climate of Lima and contributed to the Mercurio pervano.
Suffice it here to note that, after the crushing defeat of the Peruvian forces at Arica (June 7, 1880) Senor Nicolas de Pierola assumed dictatorial powers, with General Andres Caceres as commander-in-chief, but the defeats at Chorrillos (Jan.
The principal conditions imposed by Chile were the absolute cession by Peru of the province of Tarapaca, and the occupation for a period of ten years of the territories of Tacna and Arica, the ownership of these districts to be decided by a popular vote of the inhabitants of Tacna and Arica at the expiration of the period named.
It was not so much the value of Tacna and Arica that put difficulties in the way of a settlement as the fact that the national pride of the Peruvians ill brooked the idea of permanently losing all claim to this section of country.
The Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and Gulf of Arica, or such caldron-depressions as the Gulfs of Genoa and Taranto, or rift-depressions like the Gulfs of Aden and Akaba.
ARICA (SAN MARCOS DE ARICA), a town and port of the Chilean-governed province of Tacna, situated in 18° 28' 08" S.
Arica at one time had a population of 30,000 and enjoyed much prosperity, but through civil war, earthquakes and conquest, its population had dwindled to 2853 in 1895 and 2824 in 1902.
Arica was captured, looted and burned by the Chileans in 1880, and in accordance with the terms of the treaty of Ancon (1883) should have been returned to Peru in 1894, but this was not done.
The other two provinces (Tacna and Arica) were held for indemnity by Chile after the war of1879-1883with the understanding (treaty of Ancon, March 8, 1884) that at the expiration of ten years a plebiscite should be taken in the two provinces to determine whether they should remain with Chile, or return to Peru - the country to which they should be annexed to pay the other Io,000,000 pesos.
There is one railway in the province, running from the city of Tacna to Arica, and in 1910 another from Arica to La Paz, Bolivia, was under construction by the Chilean government.
The province consists of two departments, Tacna and Arica, which once formed part of the Peruvian department of Moquegua.
By rail from Arica, in a fertile valley among the foothills of the Andes.
At the close of the war between Chile and Peru (1879-1883), the terms of the treaty of Ancon (signed by representatives of the two countries on the 10th of October 1883) were practically dictated by Chile, and by one of the provisions the Peruvian provinces of Tacna and Arica were to be occupied and exploited by Chile for a period of ten years, when a plebiscite should be taken of their inhabitants to determine whether they would remain with Chile or return to Peru, the country acquiring the two provinces in this manner to pay the other $10,000,000.
Under the treaty of Ancon (20th October 1883) Chile was to retain possession of the provinces of Tacna and Arica belonging to the Peruvian department of Moquegua for a period of ten years, and then submit " to popular vote whether those territories are to belong to Chile or Peru."
This arbitrary retention of Tacna and Arica, which became the province of Tacna under Chilean administration, removed the frontier still farther north, to the river Sama, which separates that province from the remaining part of the Peruvian department of Moquegua.
Arica has been three times destroyed by tidal waves, and other small towns of the north Chilean coast have suffered similar disasters.
Arica is one of the oldest ports on the coast, and has long been a favoured port for Bolivian trade because the passes through the Cordilleras at that point are not so difficult.
Moreover, the railway from Arica to La Paz will still further add to its importance, though it may not greatly increase its population.
In addition to these the budget of 1906 provided for gold expenditures in 1907 of 7,000,000 pesos on sanitary works and 8,000,000 pesos on the Arica-La Paz railway.
By the terms of this treaty Peru ceded to Chile unconditionally the province of Tarapaca, and the provinces of Tacna and Arica were placed under Chilean authority for the term of ten years, the inhabitants having then to decide by a general vote whether they remained a part of Chile or elected to belong once more to Peru.
The problems to be solved were the frontier difficulty with Argentina, the question of the possession of Tacna and Arica with Peru, and the necessity of fulfilling the obligation contracted with Bolivia to give that country a seaport on the Pacific coast.
By the protocol of 1895 Chile agreed to give to Bolivia the port of Arica, or some other suitable position on the seaboard.
Vitor, a landing-place a little to the south of Arica, was offered by the Chilean government to Bolivia, but refused as not complying with the conditions stated in the protocol of 1895; the Bolivians furthermore preferred to wait and see if Arica was finally ceded by Peru to Chile, and if so to claim the fulfilment of the terms of the protocol.
In September 1900 a fresh outburst of hostile feeling against Chile was created in Argentina by a note addressed by the Chilean government to Bolivia, intimating that Chile was no longer inclined to hand over the port of Arica or any other port on the Pacific, but considered the time ripe for a final settlement of the questions connected with the Chilean occupation of Bolivian territory, which had now been outstanding for sixteen years.
By this treaty Bolivia ceded all claims to a seaport and strip of the coast, on condition that Chile constructed at her own charges a railway to Lapaz from the port of Arica, giving at the same time to Bolivia free transit across Chilean territory to the sea.
Chile also agreed to construct a railway from Arica to La Paz, 295 m.
Lines were in 1907 projected from La Paz to the navigable waters of the Beni, from La Paz to Cochabamba, from Viacha to Oruro, from Uyuni to Potosi and Sucre, from Uyuni to Tupiza, and from Arica to La Paz via Corocoro.
The undertaking of the Arica-La Paz line by the Chilean government, also, was an important step towards the improvement of the economic situation in Bolivia.
These figures, however, do not correctly represent the aggregates of Bolivian trade, as her imports and exports passing through Antofagasta, Arica and Mollendo are to a large extent credited to Chile and Peru.
The superiority of the Chileans at sea, though checked for some time by the heroic gallantry of the Peruvians, soon enabled them to land a sufficient number of troops to meet the allied forces which had concentrated at Arica and other points in the south.
By this treaty Chile declared that if, in consequence of the plebiscite (to take place under the treaty of Ancon with Peru), or by virtue of direct arrangement, she should " acquire dominion and permanent sovereignty over the territories of Tacna and Arica, she undertakes to transfer them to Bolivia in the same form and to the same extent as she may acquire them "; the republic of Bolivia paying as an indemnity for that transfer $5,000,000 silver.
The long-standing dispute with Chile with regard to its occupation of the former Bolivian provinces of Tacna and Arica under the Parto de Tregna of the 4th of April 1884 was more difficult to arrange satisfactorily.
The government of Chile undertook to construct a railway at its own cost from Arica to the Bolivian capital, La Paz, and to give the Bolivians free transit through Chilean territory to certain towns on the coast.