In 1767 he was appointed to the charge of Mill Hill Chapel at Leeds, where he again changed his religious opinions from a loose Arianism to definite Socinianism and wrote many political tracts hostile to the attitude of the government towards the American colonies.
It may be added that after the Reformation Arianism was revived in Socinianism, and Pelagianism in Arminianism; but the conception of heresy in Protestantism demands subsequent notice.
Arianism, when favoured by the reigning emperor, showed itself even more intolerant than Catholic Orthodoxy.
His views on the problems of Arianism, and his attempt to reconcile it with orthodox theology, are contained in A Specimen of True Philosophy (1730, reprinted in Metaphysical Tracts, 1837) and Logology, or a Treatise on the Logos in Seven Sermons on John i.
In 356 he went to Alexandria with Eunomius in order to advocate Arianism, but he was banished by Constantius.
There Arianism was formulated and there Athanasius, the great opponent of both heresy and pagan reaction, worked and triumphed.
Being consecrated a bishop, he used his office in the interests of Arianism by creating other bishops of that party.
At George's instigation the second Sirmian formula (promulgated by the third council of' Sirmium 3S7), which was conciliatory towards strict Arianism, was opposed at the council of Ancyra in 358 (Harnack, Hist.
His chief works were Studies of Arianism (1882); The Knowledge of God (1906, the published version of his Gifford lectures) and Early Church History (1909).
The Arianism of Ulfilas was a fact of pregnant consequence for his people, and indirectly for the empire.
In the western half of the empire Arianism found no foothold, and even the despotic will of Constantius, sole emperor after 351, succeeded only for the moment in subduing the bishops exiled for the sake of their belief.
Arianism, which had lifted up its head again under the emperor Valens, was thereby thrust out of the state church.
Gwatkin, Studies of Arianism (2nd edit., Cambridge, 1900); A.
Mose important was the two-fold mission to Britain - of St Augustine in 596, of Mellitus, Paulinus and others in 601; but Gregory also made strenuous efforts to uproot paganism in Gaul, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica, Arianism in Spain, Donatism in Africa, Manichaeism in Sicily, the heresy of the Three Chapters in Istria and northern Italy.
As this MS. contains transcriptional errors, and as its archetype had perhaps a Greek basis, the Recognitions may be dated c. 350-3751 (its Christology suggested to Rufinus an Arianism like that of Eunomius of Cyzicus, c. 362), and the Homilies prior even to 350.
She now abjured Arianism and was converted to the orthodox faith, and the union was celebrated at Metz; on which occasion Fortunatus, an Italian poet, who was then at the Frankish court, composed the epithalamium.
But it is to his credit that he has been himself at the trouble to refer to the principal sources used by Socrates (Rufinus, Eusebius, Athanasius, Sabinus, the collections of epistles, Palladius), and has not unfrequently supplemented Socrates from them; and also that he has used some new authorities, in particular sources relating to Christianity in Persia and to the history of Arianism, monkish histories, the Vita Martini of Sulpicius, and works of Hilarius.
This is generally known as the Breviarium Alaricianum, or Breviary of Alaric. Alaric was of a peaceful disposition, and endeavoured strictly to maintain the treaty which his father had concluded with the Franks, whose king Clovis, however, desiring to obtain the Gothic province in Gaul, found a pretext for war in the Arianism of Alaric. The intervention of Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths and father-in-law of Alaric, proved unavailing.
Adopting Arianism they came into conflict with the Romans, and under their king Gundahar or Gundicar (the Gunther of the Nibelungenlied) rose in 435 against the Roman governor Aetius, who called in the Huns against them.
For several years Whiston continued to write and preach both on mathematical and theological subjects with considerable success; but his study of the Apostolical Constitutions had convinced him that Arianism was the creed of the primitive church; and with him to form an opinion and to publish it were things almost simultaneous.
The best attested date for his death is the 9th of June 373 It is clear that this chronology leaves no room for the visit to Egypt, and the eight years spent there in refuting Arianism, which are alleged by his biographer.
Detached details are given also in works upon Constantine (Manso), Julian (Mi eke, Rode, Neumann, Rendall), Damasus (Rade), Arianism (Gwatkin's Studies of Arianism, which gives a severe but trustworthy criticism of Rufinus and discusses the manner in which Socrates was related to him), the emperors after Julian (De Broglie, Richter, Clinton, the Weltgeschichte of Ranke, the Gesch.
Agilulf could not abandon his traditional Arianism, and he was a very uneasy neighbour, not only to the Greek exarch, but to Rome itself.
The struggle against Arianism was not merely a struggle for orthodoxy.
In his works written during this period (for instance, the Praeparatio evangelica and Demonstratio evangelica), as in the works of Origen himself and other anteNicene fathers, expressions occur looking in the direction of Arianism, and others looking in the opposite direction.
He is best known, however, as a warm opponent of Arianism, whose eagerness to emphasize the deity of Christ and the unity of His person led him so far as a denial of the existence of a rational human soul (Pas) in Christ's human nature, this being replaced in Him by a prevailing principle of holiness, to wit the Logos, so that His body was a glorified and spiritualized form of humanity.
Notwithstanding a charge of Arianism now brought against him by the Tractarian party, he in 1833 passed from a tutorship at Oriel to the principalship of St Mary's Hall.
But the affinities of the author are quite otherwise, the most pronounced of them being a strong subordinationist tendency, denial of a human soul to Christ, and the like, which suggest not indeed Arianism but an inclination towards Arianism.
A movement towards Arianism and then towards Socinianism (Joseph Priestley, Nath.
By degrees his type of theology superseded Arianism in a considerable number of dissenting congregations.
- Unitarianism in the United States followed essentially the same development as in England, and passed through the stages of Arminianism, Arianism, anti-tritheism, to rationalism and a modernism based on a large-minded acceptance of the results of the comparative study of all religions.
Before the War of Independence Arianism showed itself in individual instances, and French influences were widespread in the direction of deism, though they were not organized into any definite utterance by religious bodies.
Caroli brought a counter-charge against the Geneva divines of Sabellianism and Arianism, because they would not enforce the Athanasian creed, and had not used the words "Trinity" and "Person" in the confession they had drawn up. It was a struggle between the thoroughgoing humanistic reformer who drew his creed solely from the "word of God" and the merely semi-Protestant reformer who looked on the old creed as a priceless heritage.
Add to this that a slave who professed Islam could secure his freedom, at least from slavery to a Christian master, that Arianism had not been quite rooted out, that the country districts were still largely pagan, and it will not appear wonderful that within a generation Mahommedan Spain was full of renegades who formed in all probability a majority of its polulation and a most important social and political element.
His numerous works include histories of Arianism, the iconoclastic controversy, the Greek schism, Lutheranism, Calvinism, and of the pontificates of Leo I.
The History of Arianism was published in English (1728-1729) by William Webster, with an appendix on the English writers in the Socinian and Arian controversies.