8 a to oxidize when sparked with oxygen, and on examining it spectroscopically he saw that the spectrum was not that of argon, but was characterized by a bright yellow line near to, but not identical with, the D line of sodium.
In the absence of liquid air the helium must be purified by the methods employed for argon (q.v.).
(I) it is a corruption of the ancient name, Egeopelago; (2) it is from the modern Greek, `Ayco iraayo, the Holy Sea; (3) it arose at the time of the Latin empire, and means the Sea of the Kingdom (Arche); (4) it is a translation of the Turkish name, Ak Denghiz, Argon Pelagos, the White Sea; (5) it is simply Archipelagus, Italian, arcipelago, the chief sea.
One remarkable discovery, however, of general interest, was the outcome of a long series of delicate weighings and minute experimental care in the determination of the relative density of nitrogen gas - undertaken in order to determine the atomic weight of nitrogen - namely, the discovery of argon, the first of a series of new substances, chemically inert, which occur, some only in excessively minute quantities, as constituents of the 1 The barony was created at George IV.'s coronation in 1821 for the wife of Joseph Holden Strutt, M.P. for Maldon (1790-1826) and Okehampton (1826-1830), who had done great service during the French War as colonel of the Essex militia.
In 1894 he was associated with Lord Rayleigh in the discovery of argon, announced at that year's meeting of the British Association in Oxford, and in the following year he found in certain rare minerals such as cleveite the gas helium which till that time had only been known on spectroscopic evidence as existing in the sun.
The elements are usually divided into two classes, the metallic and the non-metallic elements; the following are classed as non-metals, and the remainder as metals: Of these hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine, oxygen, nitrogen, argon, neon, krypton, xenon and helium are gases, bromine is a liquid, and the remainder are solids.
The molecule of every compound must obviously contain at least two atoms, and generally the molecules of the elements are also polyatomic, the elements with monatomic molecules (at moderate temperatures) being mercury and the gases of the argon group. The laws of chemical combination are as follows: I.
The periodic law (see Element) permits a grouping of the elements according to their valency as follows: - Group 0: helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon appear to be devoid of valency.
The synthesis of nitric acid by passing electric sparks through moist air by Cavendish is a famous piece of experimental work, for in the first place it determined the composition of this important substance, and in the second place the minute residue of air which would not combine, although ignored for about a century, was subsequently examined by Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay, who showed that it consists of a mixture of elementary substances - argon, krypton, neon and xenon (see Argon).
It is found that mercury vapour, helium, argon and its associates (neon, krypton, &c.) have the value 1.67; hence we conclude that these gases exist as monatomic molecules.
Of these, argon and its allies were the last to be definitely isolated.
P. 187) also used a single dust-tube with a sounder to find 7 for argon, and again the value was 1.66.
Paschen 6 has further extended the method and added a number of infra-red lines to the spectra of helium, argon, oxygen and other elements.
ARGON (from the Gr.
The evidence of the existence of a new gas (named Argon on account of its chemical inertness), and a statement of many of its properties, were communicated to the Royal Society (see Phil.
Of small quantities of argon and for determinations of the amount present in various samples of gas, e.g.
The most conspicuous group in the argon spectrum at atmospheric pressure is that first recorded by A.
It is of interest to note that the argon spectrum may be fully developed by operating upon a miniature scale, starting with only 5 c.c. of air (Phil.
The argon ultimately found was 75 o c.c., or a little more than I% of the atmospheric nitrogen used.
P. 66, 1895) gave 1 186 c.c. as the amount of argon present in loo c.c. of mixed atmospheric nitrogen and argon.
The residual argon, derived doubtless from the water used to manipulate the gases, was but a small 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 5°00 Argon Red Zinc Hydrogen Hy F FIG.
At this temperature the nitrogen combines with the magnesium, and thus the argon is concentrated.
The density of argon, prepared and purified by magnesium, was found by Sir William Ramsay to be 19.941 on the O = 16 scale.
The volume actually weighed was 163 c.c. Subsequently large-scale operations with the same apparatus as had been used for the principal gases gave an almost identical result (19.940) for argon prepared with oxygen.
Argon is soluble in water at 12° C. to about 4.0%, that is, it is about 22 times more soluble than nitrogen.
The weight of a mixture of argon and nitrogen prepared from the dissolved gases showed an excess of 24 mg.
Argon is contained in the gases liberated by many thermal springs, but not in special quantity.
The most remarkable physical property of argon relates to the constant known as the ratio of specific heats.
This is precisely the number found from the velocity of sound in argon as determined by Kundt's method, and it leaves no room for any sensible energy of rotatory or vibrational motion.
It may be added that helium has the same character as argon in respect of specific heats (Ramsay, Proc. Roy.
The refractivity of argon is 961 of that of air.
This low refractivity is noteworthy as strongly antagonistic to the view at one time favoured by eminent chemists that argon was a condensed form of nitrogen represented by N3.
The viscosity of argon is I.
21, referred to air, somewhat higher than for oxygen, which stands at the head of the list of the principal gases ("On some Physical Properties of Argon and Helium," Proc. Roy.
The red glow of argon was readily obtained with a voltage of 2000, but not with much less.
As soon as a spark-gap was introduced, or the condenser began to emit the humming sound peculiar to it, the beautiful blue glow so characteristic of argon immediately appeared.
P. 77, 1897.) The behaviour of argon at low temperatures was investigated by K.
From the manner of its preparation it was clear at an early stage that argon would not combine with magnesium or calcium at a red heat, nor under the influence of the electric discharge with oxygen, hydrogen or nitrogen.
Nor does it appear that any well-defined compound of argon has yet been prepared.
Berthelot that under the influence of the silent electric discharge, a mixture of benzene vapour and argon underwent contraction, with formation of a gummy product from which the argon could be recovered.
The facts detailed in the original memoir led to the conclusion that argon was an element or a mixture of elements, but the question between these alternatives was left open.
Norman Collie to separate argon by diffusion into two parts, which should have different densities or refractivities, led to no distinct effect.
These gases agree with argon in respect of the ratio of the specific heats and in being non-oxidizable under the electric spark.
As originally defined, argon included small proportions of these gases, but it is now preferable to limit the name to the principal constituent and to regard the newer gases as "companions of argon."
Being less volatile than nitrogen, argon accumulates relatively as liquid air evaporates.
Apollonius Rhodius (Argon, iv.
This Appears To Be Actually The Case For Monatomic Gases Such As Mercury Vapour (Kundt And Warburg, 1876), Argon And Helium (Ramsay, 1896).
He found that a small fraction, not more thanoth part, resisted the change, and in this residue he doubtless had a sample of the inert gas argon which was only recognized as a distinct entity more than a hundred years later.