C. C. Burmeister in the territory of the Argentine Republic. 4 This bird, which has since been regarded as entitled to generic division under the name of Chunga burmeisteri (P.Z.S., 1870, p. 466, pl.
ARGENTINA, or the Argentine Republic (officially, Republica Argentina), a country occupying the greater part of the southern extremity of South America.
The Argentine " mesopotamia," between the Parana and Uruguay rivers, belongs in great measure to this same region, being partly wooded, flat and swampy in the north (Corrientes), but higher and undulating in the south (Entre Rios).
The remainder of the great Argentine plain is the treeless, grassy pampa (Quichua for " level spaces "), apparently a dead level, but in reality rising gradually from the Atlantic westward toward the Andes.
The largest of the rivers through which Argentina drains into the Plata system are the Pilcomayo, which rises in Bolivia and flows south-east along the Argentine frontier for about 400 m.; the Bermejo, which rises on the northern frontier and flows south-east into the Paraguay; and the Salado del Norte (called Rio del Juramento in its upper course), which rises on the high mountain slopes of western Salta and flows south-east into the Parana.
An occasional Argentine steamer visits these ports in the interests of colonists.
==Fauna== The Argentine fauna, like its flora, has been greatly influenced by the character and position of the pampas.
The greatest development of the Argentine fauna, however, is in the warm, wooded regions of the north and north-east, where many animals are of the same species as those in the neighbouring territories of Brazil.
Pumas, jaguars and one or two species of wild cat are numerous, as also the Argentine wolf and two or three species of fox.
Serpents are numerous, but only two are described as poisonous, the cascavel (rattlesnake) and the " vibora de la cruz " (Trigonocephalus alternatus).1 ' Interesting detail g of the Argentine fauna may be found in Darwin's Voyage of the Beagle; W.
Napp's Argentine Republic; and de Moussy's Confederation argentine.
A considerable percentage of these arrivals and departures represents seasonal labourers, who come out from Europe solely for the Argentine wheat harvest and should not be classed as immigrants.
Science and Literature.-Though the university of Cordoba is the oldest but one in South America, it has made no conspicuous contribution to Argentine literature beyond the historical works of its famous rector, Gregorio Funes (1749-1830).
The Transandine line, designed to open railway communication between Buenos Aires and Valparaiso, was so far completed early in 1909 that on the Argentine side only the summit tunnel, 2 m.
In 1889 the first shipment of Argentine cattle, consisting altogether of 1930 steers, was sent to England.
The rapid development of the foreign trade of the republic since 1881 is due to settled internal conditions and to the prime necessity to the commercial world of many Argentine products, such as beef, mutton, hides, wool, wheat and Indian corn.
In 1906 the president announced that permission had been given by the German emperor for 30 Argentine officers to enter the German army each year and to serve eighteen months, and also for five officers to attend the Berlin Military Academy.
The Argentine constitution recognizes the Roman Catholic religion as that of the state, but tolerates all others.
At the head of the Argentine hierarchy are one archbishop and five suffragan bishops, who have five seminaries for the education of the priesthood.
In the meantime the Spaniards had penetrated into the interior of what is now the Argentine Republic, and established themselves on the eastern slopes of the Andes.
The continual encroachments of the Portuguese at length led the Spanish government to take the important step of making Buenos Aires the seat of a viceroyalty with jurisdiction over the territories of the present republics of Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and the Argentine Confederation (1776).
But his measures speedily gave dissatisfaction to the Argentine or Creole party, who had long chafed under the disabilities of Spanish rule, and who now felt themselves no longer bound by ties of loyalty to a country which was in the possession of the French armies.
From 1816, however, the independence of the Argentine Republic was assured, and success attended the South Americans in their contest with the royal armies.
Rivadavia's term of office was likewise memorable for the constitution of the 24th of December 1826, passed by the constituent congress of all the provinces, by which the bonds which united the confederated states of the Argentine Republic were strengthened.
As provi sional director of the Argentine nation.
The two sections of the Argentine nation contrived to exist as separate governments without an open breach of the peace until 1859, when the long-continued tension led to the outbreak of hostilities.
He was elected president of the Argentine confederation and did his utmost to settle the questions which had led to so many civil wars, on a permanent and sound basis.
Meanwhile, disturbances had broken out in the interior of Argentina (1867), which compelled Mitre to relinquish his command in Paraguay, and to call back a large part of the Argentine forces to suppress the insurrection.
The Argentine province of Corrientes.
Through the rapid depreciation of Argentine credit, the great firm of Baring Brothers, the financial agents of the government in London, became so heavily involved that they were forced into liquidation, November 1890.
The Argentine government, though disappointed at the result, accepted the award loyally.
This proof of the desire of the Argentine government to meet honestly all its obligations did much to restore its credit abroad.
The question of the Puna de Atacama was referred to a tribunal composed of the United States minister to Argentina and of one Argentine and one Chilean delegate; that of the southern frontier in Patagonia to the British crown.
Akers, Argentine, Patagonian and Chilian Sketches (London, 1893), and A History of South America 1854-1904 (New York, 1905); Theodore Child, The Spanish-American Republics (London, 1891); Sir T.
239,178 The Basques of Basses-PyrnCes go in considerable 442,777 numbers to the Argentine Republic, the inhabitants of 333,621 Basses Alpes to Mexico and the United States, and 429,812 there are important French colonies in Algeria and 315,199 Tunisia.
Argentine Republic ..
ARGENTINE, a city of Wyandotte county, Kansas, U.
The Andine sub-region extends from Peru to the Argentine and follows roughly the watershed of the Amazon.
Prosotis extends to the Argentine; other characteristic genera are Oenothera, Godetia Collomia, Heliotropium and Eritrichium.
Pedro de Valdivia in 1540 made an expedition into the country of the Araucanian Indians of Chile, and was the first to explore the eastern base of the Andes in what is now Argentine Patagonia.
The plains are covered by a formation similar to that of the Argentine pampas and by the alluvial deposits of the present rivers.
Flora.-The pastoral wealth of Uruguay, as of the neighbouring Argentine Republic, is due to the fertilizing constitutents of "pampa mud," geologically associated with gigantic antediluvian animals, whose fossil remains are abundant.
The great majority of the foreign population are Italians or Spaniards, with lesser numbers, in descending scale, of Brazilian, Argentine and French birth.
The natives of Uruguay, though living in conditions similar to those of the Argentine population, are in general more reserved, showing more of the Indian type and less of the Spaniard.
Development of these lines has been primarily an extension from the large cities in the East to the agricultural districts in the West, but a change of great importance was brought about in 1910 by the completion of the last tunnel on the Argentine Transandine Railway, which serves to connect Santiago, Valparaiso and the other great cities of the west coast with Buenos Ayres, Montevideo, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and the other great cities of the east coast.
Guanacos and Argentine hares are found in abundance in Neuquen, and to a lesser degree the South American ostrich.
It imports great quantities of wool from the Argentine and Australia, and is in regular communication with New York, London and the chief ports of the United Kingdom, Brazil and the far East.
Extreme variations in temperature are often produced by cold south-west storms from the Argentine pampas, which sweep across southern Brazil as far north as Cape Frio, the fall in temperature sometimes being 22° to 27°.
The range of the sloth is from the Guianas south into Minas Geraes, the armadillo as far south as the Argentine pampas and the ant-eater from the Amazon south to Paraguay, though it is found in the Amazon region principally.
The government lines extend from Para to the Argentine and Uruguayan frontiers, where they connect with the telegraph systems of those republics, and from Rio de Janeiro westward across country, in great part unsettled, to the capitals of Goyaz and Matto Grosso.