The surface of the vilayet is generally mountainous, except in the central valley of the Maritza, and along the banks of its tributaries, the Tunja, Arda, Ergene, &c. On the west, the great Rhodope range and its outlying ridges extend as far as the Maritza, and attain an altitude of more than 7000 f t.
According to the Arda Viraf, I, 2, Zoroaster taught, in round numbers, some 300 years before the invasion of Alexander.
Reached Kirjali on the Arda, while the I.
It was naturally divided by its four water-courses (Upper Maritsa, Arda, Lower Maritsa, Tunja) into four sectors.
Army); and on the Upper Maritsa-Arda front the 9th, also of the II.
Each side extended southward in search of the other's flank till the Arda was approached.
In the Tunja-Upper Maritsa sector the principal work of the main line was a group formed round Chiftlik-Ekmechikoi which has been compared to a" Feste."A group of the same character (Papas Tepe) occupied the ridge between Upper Maritsa and Arda, a fortified village barred the Ortakoi road in the Arda valley itself, and a third" Feste "had been constructed on Kartal Tepe.
Front (left bank of the Tunja), was an advanced position, or rather a discontinuous series of field positions on selected sites astride the saddles of ground which separate the rivers (Tunja and lower Maritsa, Maritsa and Arda, Arda and upper Maritsa, upper Maritsa and Tunja).
Lately operating in the Rhodope came up, some by the Arda and some via Demotika on the S.
Between Arda and lower Maritsa and the i 1th with part of the 2nd in the broadest sector, the eastern.
According to the Arda-Viraf--Nama the religion revealed through Zoroaster has subsisted in its purity for 300 years, when Iskander Rumi (Alexander the Great) invaded and devastated Iran, and burned the Avesta which, written on cowhides with golden ink, was preserved in the archives at Persepolis.
He returned to Italy in time to take part in the battle of Staff arda, which resulted in the defeat of the coalition at the hands of the French marshal Catinat; but in the spring of 1691 Prince Eugene, having secured reinforcements, caused the siege of Coni to be raised, took possession of Carmagnola, and in the end completely defeated Catinat.