The measure by which the archonship was opened to the third and (practically) to the fourth class of citizens (the Zeugitae and Thetes) may also be due to Pericles; the date is now known to be 457 (Const.
From this widely accepted belief arose the almost certainly false statement that Peisistratus took part in Solon's successful war against Megara, which necessarily took place before Solon's archonship (probably in 600 B.C.).
With the end of the Persian Wars, the original object of ostracism was removed, but it continued in use for forty years and was revived in 417 B.C. It now became a mere party weapon and the farcical result of its use in 417 in the case of Hyperbolus led to its abolition either at once, or, as Lugebil seeks to prove, in the archonship of Euclides (403 B.C.).
The great advantages which the Peiraic promontory with its three natural harbours offered for purposes of defence and commerce were first recognized by Themistocles, in whose archonship (493 B.C.) the fortifications of the Peiraeus were begun.
The beautiful choragic monument of Lysicrates, dedicated in the archonship of Euaenetus (335-334 B.C.), is the only survivor of a number of such structures which stood in the The choragic " Street of the Tripods " to the east of the Dionysiac monument theatre, bearing the tripods given to the successful of choragi at the Dionysiac festival.
The only notable innovations since the days of Cleisthenes had been the reduction of the archonship to a routine magistracy appointed partly by lot (487), and the rise of the ten elective strategi (generals) as chief executive officers (see Strategus).
22, that Aristides after Plataea threw open the archonship to all the citizens, see ARCHON.) He is said by some authorities to have died at Athens, by others on a journey to the Euxine sea.
The Athenians at once invited their allies to a conference, and the Second Athenian Confederacy was formed in the archonship of Nausinicus on the basis of the famous decree of Aristoteles.
During the archonship of an Alcmaeonid Megacles (?
8) and probably the nominal enjoyment of all its prerogatives; but their method of filling the archonship with their own kinsmen and creatures gradually converted the Areopagites into willing supporters of tyranny.
In 487 B.C., however, the introduction of the lot as a part of the process of filling the archonship (see Archon) began to undermine its ability.
From this time to the establishment of the Thirty (462404 B.C.) the Areopagitic council, degraded still further by the opening of the archonship to the Zeugitae (457 B.C.) and by the absolute use of the lot in filling the office, was a political nullity.
He was born in the 99th Olympiad in the archonship at Athens of Diotrephes (384-383), three years before Demosthenes.
In the archonship of Polyzelus (367-366), after the death of his father, in his eighteenth year, he came to Athens, and having joined Plato spent twenty years with him.
On the death of Plato (May 347) in the archonship of Theophilus (348-347) he departed to Hermias, tyrant of Atarneus, and, after three years' stay, during the archonship of Eubulus (345-344) he moved to Mitylene, whence he went to Philip of Macedon in the archonship of Pythodotus (343-342), and spent eight years with him as tutor of Alexander.
After the death of Philip (336), in the archonship of Euaenetus (335-334), he returned to Athens and kept a school in the Lyceum for twelve years.
In the thirteenth, after the death of Alexander (June 323) in the archonship of Cephisodorus (323-322), having departed to Chalcis, he died of disease (322), after a life of three-and-sixty years.
No doubt, however, he went on writing and rewriting well into the last period of his life; for example, the recently discovered 'Ath i valwv 7roXtreia mentions on the one hand (c. 54) the archonship of Cephisophon (329-328), on the other hand (c. 46) triremes and quadriremes but without quinqueremes, which first appeared at Athens in 325-324; and as it mentions nothing later it probably received its final touches between 329 and 324.
It is probable, however, that in the case of Thales the appellation " wise man," which was given to him and to the other six in the archonship of Damasius (586 B.C.), 1 was conferred on him not only on account of his political sagacity, but also for his scientific eminence (Plut.
As the date of the archonship of Damasius.
==Evolution of the Office== The history of the democratization of the archonship is beset with equal difficulty.
Although the institution of the popular courts by Solon had within it the germ of democratic supremacy, it is clear that the immediate result was small; thus, in the next decade anarchia was continuous and Damasias held the archonship for more than two years in defiance of the new constitution; the prolonged dissension in this matter shows that the office of archon still retained its supreme importance.
Gradually, however, the archonship lost its power, especially in judicial matters, until it retained merely the right of holding the preliminary investigation and the formal direction of the popular courts.
We know that Peisistratus ruled by controlling the archonship, which was always held by members of his family, and the archonship of Isagoras was clearly an important party victory; we know further the names of three important men who held the office between Cleisthenes' reform and the Persian War (Hipparchus, Themistocles, Aristides) from which we infer that the office was still the prize of party competition.
There can, on these assumptions, be no doubt that, from the early years of the 5th century B.C., the archonship was of practically no importance.
Now it is perfectly clear that it could not have been this object which impelled Solon to introduce sortition; for in his time the archonship was not open to the lower classes, and, therefore, election was more democratic than sortition, whereas later the case was reversed.