The archons and members of the boule, who certainly received remuneration in 411, and also some minor magistrates, were perhaps paid for the first time by Pericles.
3) we know that the Prytaneum was the official residence of the Archons, but, when the new Agora was constructed (by Peisistratus ?), they took their meals in the Thesmotheteum for the sake of convenience.
By Ur, Ruha, while P'tahil was engaged in his work of creation, became mother of three sets of seven, twelve and five sons respectively; all were translated by P'tahil to the heavenly firmament (like the Archons of Mani), the first group forming the planets and the next the signs of the zodiac, while the third is as yet undetermined.
The people met, not as usual in the Pnyx, but in the Agora, in the presence of the Archons, and recorded their votes by placing in urns small fragments of pottery (which in the ancient world served the purpose of waste-paper) (ostraca) on which they wrote the name of the person whom they wished to banish.
The government was vested in the council (1 30uXii) and people (8rl/20s), and administered by civil officers with Greek titles, the proedros (president), the grammateus (secretary), the archons, syndics and dekaprotoi (a fiscal council of ten), following the model of a Greek municipality under the Roman Empire.
Here were the various public buildings, which, when the power of the princes on Agora the citadel was transferred to the archons, formed the offices of the administrative magistracy.
1 - The later chronology of Assyria has long been fixed, thanks to the lists of limmi, or archons, who gave their names in succession to their years of office.
Thus in one city the reckoning was by succession of kings, in another by archons or annual magistrates, in a third by succession of priests.
He compiled chronological lists of the archons and Olympiads, and made a collection of Attic inscriptions, the first of its kind in Greece.
126.8) informs us that at the time of the Cylonian insurrection the Athenians, we may suppose in their assembly ('EKKXflvfa), commissioned the archons with absolute power to deal with the trouble at their discretion.
Though hostile, therefore, to the policy of Cleisthenes, their council seems to have suffered no direct abridgment of power from his reforms. After his legislation it gradually changed character and political sentiment by the annual admission of ex-archons who had held office under a popular constitution.
In internal government the cleruchs adopted the Boule and Assembly system of Athens itself; so we read of Polemarchs, Archons Eponymi, Agoranomi, Strategi, in various places.
In their report the following measures were recommended: (i.) annulment of the act against promulgating illegal measures; (ii.) abolition of pay, save for the troops in the field and the archons; (iii.) restriction of the franchise to 5000 able to serve "with person and purse"; (iv.) the appointment of a special board to choose the 5000.
Its government was in the hands of five archons, a senate, a popular assembly and a registrar.
The king, in fact, both in Greece and in Rome, was the acting head of the state religion, and when the regal power came to an end his sacred functions were not transferred to the ordinary priests, but either they were distributed among high officers of state, as archons and prytanes, or the title of " king " was still preserved as that of a religious functionary, as in the case of the rex sacrorum at Rome and the archon basileus at Athens.
Thus at Athens the Thesmothetae (perhaps all the archons) made a vow that, should they break any law, they would dedicate a life-size gilt statue in the temple at Delphi.
There is no doubt that the archons represented the ancient kings, whose absolutism, under conditions which we can only infer, yielded in process of time to the power of the noble families, supported no doubt by the fighting force of the state.
The early history of the thesmothetae is not clear, but this much is certain that there is no adequate reason for supposing, as many historians do, that in early times, they, with the three chief archons, constituted a collective or collegiate magistracy.
Again, the Constitution of Athens says that down to Shcon's time the archons had no official residence, but that afterwards they used the Thesmotheteion.
It is a reasonable inference from this statement that the thesmothetae had previously sat together apart from the superior archons and that it was only after Solon that collegiate responsibility began.
The popular assembly was illorganized and probably summoned by the archons themselves.
On the other hand, after 487 B.C. the list of archons contains no name of importance.
Chosen by vote, not by lot), and that in 487, limited sortition was introduced, whereby fifty candidates were elected by each tribe, and from these the archons and their " secretary " were chosen by lot.
Mention may also be made of the following: Hecataeus of Miletus (550-476); Acusilaus of Argos, 2 who paraphrased in prose (correcting the tradition where it seemed necessary) the genealogical works of Hesiod in the Ionic dialect; he confined his attention to the prehistoric period, and made no attempt at a real history; Charon of Lampsacus (c. 450), author of histories of Persia, Libya, and Ethiopia, of annals (a)pot) of his native town with lists of the prytaneis and archons, and of the chronicles of Lacedaemonian kings; Xanthus of Sardis in Lydia (c. 450), author of a history of Lydia, one of the chief authorities used by Nicolaus of Damascus (II.
He founded a dynasty which seems to have endured until c. 110 B.C. The Spartocids have left many inscriptions which tell us that the earlier members of the house ruled as archons of the Greek cities and kings of various native tribes, notably the Sindi of the island district and other branches of the Maitae (Maeotae).
They followed the order of the olympiads and archons, and their work was supported by the authority of original documents, monuments and inscriptions.
It remains to give a brief analysis of the qualifications and functions of the archons after the year 487 B.C. After election (in the time of Aristotle in the month Anthesterion; in the 3rd century in Munychion) a short time had to elapse before entering on office to allow of the dokimasia (examination of fitness).
A similar investigation took place with regard to the assessors (paredri) whom the three senior archons chose to assist them.
The archons at the end of their year of office (some say on entering upon office) became members of the Areopagus, which was, therefore, a body composed of ex-archons of tried probity and wisdom.
The archons as a body retained some duties such as the appointment of jurymen, the sortition of the athlothetae, &c. (but see Gilbert's Antiquities, Eng.