In 107 Hadrian was legatus praetorius of lower Pannonia, in 108 consul suffectus, in 112 archon at Athens, legatus in the Parthian campaign (113117), in 117 consul designatus for the following year, in 119 consul for the third and last time only for four months.
What are perhaps the remains of the UTOa (3avtXuc17, in which the Archon Basileus held his court and the Areopagus Council sat in later times, were brought to light in the winter of 1897-1898, when excavations were carried out on the eastern slope of the " Theseum " hill.
Chief archon for the ensuing year (489-488).
22, that Aristides after Plataea threw open the archonship to all the citizens, see ARCHON.) He is said by some authorities to have died at Athens, by others on a journey to the Euxine sea.
The basilissa (or basilinna), wife of the archon basileus for the time, went through a ceremony of marriage to the wine god, in which.
On the 16th of the month Maimacterion, a long procession, headed by a trumpeter playing a warlike air, set out for the graves; wagons decked with myrtle and garlands of flowers followed, young men (who must be of free birth) carried jars of wine, milk, oil and perfumes; next came the black bull destined for the sacrifice, the rear being brought up by the archon, who wore the purple robe of the general, a naked sword in one hand, in the other an urn.
Arrian spent a considerable portion of his time at Athens, where he was archon 147-148.
They alone held the two offices, those of polemarch and archon, which were instituted during the 8th century B.C. to restrict the powers of the kings.
The most highly coveted office at this time was not that of BaotXEbs, which, like that of the rex sacrorum in Rome, had been stripped of all save its religious authority, but that of the Archon; soon after the legislation of Solon repeated struggles for this office between the Eupatridae and leading members of the other two classes resulted in a temporary change.
On receiving the accusation the king-archon by proclamation warned the accused to keep away from temples and other places forbidden to such persons.
There are some resemblances to the Valentinian system, but whereas the great Archon sins in ignorance, Ialdabaoth sins against knowledge; there is also less of Greek philosophy in the Ophite system.
The king, in fact, both in Greece and in Rome, was the acting head of the state religion, and when the regal power came to an end his sacred functions were not transferred to the ordinary priests, but either they were distributed among high officers of state, as archons and prytanes, or the title of " king " was still preserved as that of a religious functionary, as in the case of the rex sacrorum at Rome and the archon basileus at Athens.
ARCHON (apxcav, ruler), the title of the highest magistrate in many ancient Greek states.
Traditionally, the monarchy after the death of Codrus (?1068 B.C.) gave place to the life archon whose tenure of office was limited afterwards to ten years and then to one year.
Aristotle's Constitution of Athens speaks of five stages: (i) the institution of the polemarch who took over the military duties of the king; (2) the institution of the archon to relieve the king of his civil duties; (3) the tenure of office was reduced to ten years (?
The change was clearly effected by the devolution of the military and civil powers of the king to the polemarch and the archon, while the archon basileus (or king) retained control of state religion.
It is equally clear that owing to the predominating importance of civil affairs, the archon became the chief state official and gave his name to the year (hence archon eponymus).
Although the institution of the popular courts by Solon had within it the germ of democratic supremacy, it is clear that the immediate result was small; thus, in the next decade anarchia was continuous and Damasias held the archonship for more than two years in defiance of the new constitution; the prolonged dissension in this matter shows that the office of archon still retained its supreme importance.
Furthermore it is not till 457 that even a Zeugite archon is known, according to the Constitution of Athens (c. 26), which dates the change as five years after the death of Ephialtes and does not connect it with Aristides.
Finally an examination took place at the end of the year of office, when each archon had to answer for his actions with person and possessions; till then he could not leave the country, be adopted into another family, dispose of his property, nor receive any " crown of honour."
On entering upon office the archon (archon eponymus) made proclamation by his herald that he would not interfere with private property.
The archon basileus superintended the holy places, the mysteries, the Lampadephoria (Torch race), &c., questions of national religion and certain cases of bloodguiltiness.
In historical times the ephors were five in number, the first of them giving his name to the year, like the eponymous archon at Athens.
At this period the college of ephebi was a miniature city; its members called themselves "citizens," and it possessed an archon, strategus, herald and other officials, after the model of ancient Athens.
It was the favourite residence of many of the emperors; Nero made his first appearance on the stage in one of its theatres; Titus assumed the office of its archon; and Hadrian became its demarch.
He was defeated by Caesar at Zela, and on his return to Rome was slain by a pretender Asander who married his daughter Dynamis, and in spite of Roman nominees ruled as archon, and later as king, until 16 B.C. After his death Dynamis was compelled to marry an adventurer Scribonius, but the Romans under Agrippa interfered and set Polemon (14-8) in his place.
Latterly it appears to have become aristocratic, and most of the power was concentrated in the hands of the first archon or Proteuon, who in time was superseded by the strategus sent out from Byzantium.
No one being thought worthy to succeed Codrus, the title of king was abolished, and that of archon substituted for it.
Furthermore we find that (probably after the Persian War) the office is thrown open to the second class, and finally in 457 B.C. we meet an archon, Mnesitheides, of the third, or Zeugite, class.
The aristocratic council of the Areopagus constituted the chief criminal court, and nominated the magistrates, among whom the chief archon passed judgment in family suits, controlled admission to the genos or clan, and consequently the acquisition of the franchise.