But although welcomed with enthusiasm Reaction on his return to Turin, he introduced a system of in the reaction which, if less brutal, was no less uncom- Italian promising than that of Austrian archdukes or Bourbon States.
991), and among the later ones were the Austrian archdukes, Leopold and Leopold William, the former a brother and the latter a son of the emperor Ferdinand II.
From them it passed by marriage to the counts of Ferrette and afterwards to the archdukes of Austria.
But his incapacity was so notorious that the conduct of affairs was entrusted to a council of state, consisting of Prince Metternich (q.v.) with other ministers, and two archdukes, Louis and Francis Charles.
The archdukes (such was their official title) did not make their joyeuse entree into Brussels until the close of 1599.
For the following three years all the energies alike of the archdukes and the States-General were concentrated on the siege of Ostend (15th of July 1601-20th of Sept.
But the archdukes' treasury was now empty,and their credit exhausted; Y both sides were weary of fighting, and serious negotia tions for peace were set on foot.
The treaty was concluded with the Provinces, " in the quality of free States over whom the archdukes made no pretentions."
The advent of the new sovereigns, of officially known as " the archdukes," though greeted ands the r" with enthusiasm in the Belgic provinces, was looked upon with suspicion by the Dutch, who were as firmly resolved as ever to uphold their independence.
The Dutch, however, being masters of the sea, kept the coast closely blockaded, and through sheer exhaustion the king of Spain and the archdukes were compelled to agree to a truce for twelve years (9th of April 1609) with the United Provinces " in the capacity of free states over which Albert and Isabel made no pretensions."
During the period of the truce the archdukes, who were wise and statesmanlike rulers, did their utmost to restore prosperity to their country and to improve its internal condition.
The archdukes having consented to treat with the United Provinces "as free provinces and states over which they had no pretensions," Oldenbarneveldt, who had with him the States of Holland and the majority of burgher regents throughout the county, was for peace, provided that liberty of trading was conceded.
This date is memorable, as it marks the permanent accession of the Habsburg dynasty to the Bohemian throne, though the Austrian archdukes Rudolph and Albert had previously been rulers of Bohemia for short periods.
Accordingly in 1606 The the archdukes made a compact agreeing to acknowledge family the archduke Matthias as head of the family.