For the city of Rome he did much; ancient buildings were excavated and preserved by his direction; chairs of natural science and archaeology were founded in the university; and extensive purchases were made for the Vatican museum, which was augmented by the addition of the beautiful Braccio Nuovo, or new wing.
He was essentially a student, with strong leanings towards archaeology and ecclesiology.
Compare also the articles Rhodesia: Archaeology, and Monomotapa.
He travelled in Finland and Lapland in 1873-4, and in 1875 made a special study of archaeology and ethnology in the Balkan States.
Such a theory appears to ignore the remarkable results of archaeology since 1887.
Archaeology has become a science.
Driver's essay in Hogarth's Authority and Archaeology; cf.
On all this the recent archaeological discoveries (see the section on Archaeology) have thrown great light, but the earliest written history of Crete, like that of most parts of continental Greece, is mixed up with mythology and fable to so great an extent as to render it difficult to arrive at any clear conclusions concerning it.
(1883); Ancient Empires of the East (1884); Introduction to Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther (1885); Assyria (1885); Hibbert Lectures on Babylonian Religion (1887); The Hittites (1889); Races of the Old Testament (1891); Higher Criticism and the Verdict of the Monuments (1894); Patriarchal Palestine (1895); The Egypt of the Hebrews and Herodotus (1895); Early History of the Hebrews (1897); Israel and the Surrounding Nations (1898); Babylonians and Assyrians (1900); Egyptian and Babylonian Religion (1903); Archaeology of the Cuneiform Inscr.
The discovery of the Rosetta Stone furnished the key to Egyptian hieroglyphics; and archaeology, no less than the more practical sciences, acknowledges its debt of gratitude to the man who first brought the valley of the Nile into close touch with the thought of the West.
Lincei (1901-); Ephemeris Archaiologike (1885-); Journal of Hellenic Studies, Athenische Mittheilungen, Bulletin de correspondence hellenique, American Journal of Archaeology, &c. (all since about 1885).
For archaeology see Cyrus Thomas's Catalogue of Prehistoric Works ' Died in office.
Welcker returned to Giessen in 1808, and resuming his schoolteaching and university lectures was in the following year appointed the first professor of Greek literature and archaeology at that or any German university.
Welcker was a pioneer in the field of archaeology, and was one of the first to insist, in opposition to the narrow methods of the older Hellenists, on the necessity of co-ordinating the study of Greek art and religion with philology.
Spon brought back many valuable treasures, coins, inscriptions and manuscripts, and in later years published various important works on archaeology, notably his Voyage d'Italie, de Dalmatie, de Grece et du Levant (1678), and a Histoire de la republique de Geneve (1680).
Oberlin published several manuals on archaeology and ancient geography, and made frequent excursions into different provinces of France to investigate antiquarian remains and study provincial dialects, the result appearing in Essai sur le patois Lorrain (1775); Dissertations sur les Minnesingers (1782-1789); and Observations concernant le patois et les mceurs des gens de la campagne (1791).
See Archaeology; also Lord Avebury, Prehistoric Times (1900); Sir John Evans, Ancient Stone Implements of Great Britain (1897); Sir J.
Improved means of communication have enabled many acute observers to apply the test of scrutiny on the spot to theories and conclusions mainly based on literary evidence; five foreign schools of archaeology, directed by eminent scholars, lend valuable aid to students of all nationalities, and lectures are frequently delivered in the museums and on the more interesting and important sites.
The attention of many students has naturally been concentrated on the ancient city, the birthplace of European art and literature, and a great development of investigation and discussion in the special domain of Athenian archaeology has given birth to a voluminous literature.
Instituts (Athens, from 1876); Bulletin de correspondence hellenique (Athens, from 1877); Papers of the American School (New York, 1882-1897); Annual of the British School (London, from 1894); Journal of Hellenic Studies (London, from 1880); American Journal of Archaeology (New York, from 1885); Jahrbuch des kais.
ARCHAEOLOGY: EGYPT AND WESTERN ASIA.
Of the dam became flooded, so that a complete examination of the archaeology of the district had to be carried out in order to save historical evidence from destruction.
In Mesopotamia more than any other country literary results have been regarded as archaeology, owing to the enormous mass of the written material recovered, which has caused the study of the art and general civilization of different periods to be neglected in comparison with the same subjects in Egypt.
Archaeology: Greece And Greek Sites >>
Parker, The Archaeology of Rome: the Catacombs; Smith and Cheetham, Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, s.v.
Lowry, Christian Art and Archaeology, ch.
Kulakovsky in Materials for Russian Archaeology (St Petersburg, 1896; a publication of the Russian Imperial Archaeological Commission), but it is written in Russian, as also is the account by V.
For the general attitude towards the comparative claims of institutional archaeology and literary criticism adopted above see J.
Jacobs, Studies in Biblical Archaeology (London, 1895).
The subject of ecclesiastical vestments is not only one of great interest from the point of view of archaeology and art, but is also of importance, in so far as certain "ornaments" have become historically associated with certain doctrines on which the opinion of the Christian world is sharply divided.
For the rest of Tunisia, the first explorer interested in archaeology was Victor Guerin in 1860; his results are contained in his remarkable Voyage archeologique dans la Regence de Tunis (1862, 2 vols.).
Since its reorganization in 1869 the academy has, however, paid equal attention to the various departments of history, archaeology, national economy and the physical sciences.
For the archaeology: Kondakoff, Tolstoi and Reinach, Antiqui.tes de la Russie Meridionale (Paris, 1892); more fully in Antiquites de la Russie d'Herodote and Compte rendu de la commission archeologique de St-Petersbourg, passim.
At first a student of law, he began in 1830, by the advice of Victor Hugo, a study of the Christian archaeology of the middle ages.
Kennett's Schweich Lecture (1909), The Composition of the Book of Isaiah in thelLight of Archaeology and History, an interesting attempt at a synthesis of results, is a brightly written b'ut scholarly sketch of the growth of the book of Isaiah, which went on till thegreat success of the Jews under Judas Maccabaeus.
The treatment of the hair, moustache and beard is extremely interesting in the study of oriental archaeology (see Muller, Meyer, opp. citt.).
The ceramic history of Babylonia and Assyria has unfortunately not yet been traced; at Susa alone has the care demanded by the modern methods of archaeology been as yet expended on examining and separating the pottery found in the excavations, and Susa is not Babylonia.
Sayce and P. Jensen alone have enlisted any large body of adherents; and the former, who has worked upon his system for thirty years and published in the Proceedings of the Society for Biblical Archaeology for 1907 a summary of his method and results, has proceeded on the more scientific plan.
Archaeology (1903), and " Hittite Inscriptions, translated and annotated," ibid.
Garstang in Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology, i.
A good bibliography of general works and monographs on the archaeology and the history of the town and diocese of Coutances is given in U.
To archaeology also his services were of equal importance, for, besides copying numerous inscriptions in the district between Hail and Tema, he succeeded in gaining possession of the since famous Tema stone, which ranks with the Moabite stone among the most valuable of Semitic inscriptions.
For topography, &c. and archaeology, see Sudan § Anglo-Egyptian and Egypt.
He produced many valuable official reports and catalogues and a great number of memoirs and monographs on points connected with palaeography and the study of history and archaeology (see his Melanges de paleographie et de bibliographie (1880) with atlas; and his articles in the Album paleographique (1887).
The Lima Geographical Society (founded in 1888) is perhaps the best and most active scientific organization in the republic. Its special work covers national geographical exploration and study, archaeology, statistics and climatology, and its quarterly bulletins contain invaluable information.
Weekly, New York; the quarterly American Journal of Archaeology (1885), New York.
Among representative serials are the following - Archaeology: Museo italiano di antichita classica (1885) with atlas in folio; Oriens christianus (1901); Nuovo bollettino di archeologia cristiana, quarterly at Rome (1895).
Its area coincides also approximately with that of the previous Achaean conquests; and if the Dorians were as backward culturally as traditions and archaeology suggest, it is not improbable that they soon adopted the language of the conquered, as the Norman conquerors did in England.
Making rapid progress, he was soon qualified to give a course of lectures on archaeology, which was attended by the principal artists then at Rome.
The city was enriched with notable temples and public works (see § Archaeology), and became the home of several Cyclic poets and of Arlon, the perfecter of the dithyramb.