But among archaeologists the word is usually restricted in its technical modern application to a sepulchral mound of greater or less magnitude.
Even before this it had been clear to archaeologists and ethnologists that there was no evidence to support the popular theory that Zimbabwe had been built in very ancient days by some Oriental people.
At Spalato and on the island of Lesina) has been shown by modern archaeologists to belong to the Roman period.
It is especially necessary to make clear that the language known as Umbrian is that of a certain limited area, which cannot yet be shown to have extended very far beyond the eastern half of the Tiber valley (from Interamna Nahartium to Urvinum Mataurense), because the term is often used by archaeologists with a far wider connotation to include all the Italic, pre-Etruscan inhabitants of upper Italy; Professor Ridgeway, for instance, in his Early Age of Greece, frequently speaks of the "Umbrians" as the race to which belonged the Villanova culture of the Early Iron age.
But they are separated by so many generations from the earliest historic times that sure conclusions regarding them are impossible; at all events, as yet Russian archaeologists are not agreed as to whether the ancestors of the Sla y s were Sarmatians only or Scythians also, whose skulls have nothing in common with those of the Mongol race.
Many French Jews acquired fame, among them the ministers Cremieux (1796-1879), Fould, Gondchaux and Raynal; the archaeologists and philologians Oppert, Halevy, Munk, the Derenbourgs, Darmesteters and Reinachs; the musicians Halevy, Waldteufel and Meyerbeer; the authors and dramatists Catulle Mendes and A.
The island first attracted the notice of archaeologists by the remarkable archaic Greek bronzes found in a cave on Mount Ida in 1885, as well as by epigraphic monuments such as the famous law of Gortyna; but the first undoubted Aegean remains reported from it were a few objects extracted from Cnossus by Minos Kalokhairinos of Candia in 1878.
Leake (Topography of Athens and the Demi, 2nd ed., 1841) brought the descriptive literature to an end and inaugurated the period of modern scientific research, in which German archaeologists have played a distinguished part.
The native archaeologists of the present day hold a recognized position in the scientific world; the patriotic sentiment of former times, which prompted their zeal but occasionally warped their judgment, has been merged in devotion to science for its own sake, and the supervision of excavations, as well as the control of the art-collections, is now in highly competent hands.
Muller, has been generally accepted by modern archaeologists; and it is a strong point in its favour that the bishop of Orvieto in 595 signs himself episcopus civitatis Bulsiniensis (Gregor.
Of course, generally speaking, less advance was made than in many previous decades, owing to the interregnum caused by the World War, when all British, French, German, and Austrian work was held up, and only the Americans and to a lesser degree the so-called " Egyptian " Service of Antiquities (manned by French and English) did any digging at all; while in all the European countries the energies of all the archaeologists who were not superannuated were transferred to the field of war, and there was no time left to write little papers, still less big books.
To the student of antiquity the most interesting are: Delos, one of the greatest centres of ancient religious, political and commercial life, where an important series of researches has been carried out by French archaeologists; Melos, where, in addition to various buildings of the Hellenic and Roman periods, the large prehistoric stronghold of Phylakopi has been excavated by members of the British school at Athens; and Thera (see Santorin), the ancient capital of which has been explored by Baron Hiller von Gaertringen.
The red matter proves to be the remains of wine, not of blood; and the conclusion of the ablest archaeologists is that the vessels were placed where they are found, after the eucharistic celebration or agape on 'the day of the funeral or its anniversary, and contained remains of the consecrated elements as a kind of religious charm.
C. 19, § 4), was the distinguishing mark of Porsena's tomb, and which have led some adventurous archaeologists to identify this sepulchre with that of the great king of Etruria (Dennis, u.s., pp. 393 ff.).
Each of these ruins has been visited by archaeologists who have copied inscriptions, described the temples, triumphal arches, porticos, mausoleums and the other monuments which are still standing, collected statues or other antiquities; and in many cases they have actually excavated.
Tasse, cup; all from Persian tas, goblet), a word generally adopted by archaeologists and connoisseurs for a type of drinking vessel.
The importance of Tarquinii to archaeologists lies mainly in its necropolis, situated to the S.E.
The most renowned poets were at the same time men of culture and science, critics, archaeologists, astronomers or physicians.
It is doubtful, however, if Alcantara marks the site of any Roman town, though archaeologists have sometimes identified it either with Norba Caesarea or with Interamnium.
Zoologists divide the earth into biological areas or regions, so both archaeologists and ethnologists may find it convenient to have in mind some such scheme of provinces as the following, partly after the dominant ethnic provinces.
- A valuable endowment of research in specimens, literature and pictures, deposited in libraries, museums and galleries since 1880, will keep ethnologists and archaeologists employed for many years to come.
Rutherford and James Adam; among historians and archaeologists, W.
Modern archaeologists approach the question from a different standpoint, but the origin of the American aborigines and of Mexican civilization remains extremely obscure (see America, where the primitive Mexican cultures are fully illustrated, and CENTRAL America).
The only site which has attracted archaeologists is that of Eretria, which was excavated by the American School of Athens in 1890-1895.
The conclusions at which Bent arrived as to the Semitic origin of the ruins in Mashonaland have not been accepted by archaeologists, but the value of his pioneer work is undeniable (see Zimbabwe).
Torquis, torques, a twisted collar, torquere, to twist), the term given by archaeologists to the twisted collars or armlets of gold or other metal worn particularly by the ancient Gauls and other allied Celtic races.
Yet throughout the bronze age it is possible to trace a fairly well-defined group of antiquities covering the basin of the Elbe, Mecklenburg, Holstein, Jutland, southern Sweden and the islands of the Belt, and archaeologists have conjectured with much probability that these antiquities represent the early civilization of the Teutonic peoples.
Funeral Customs. - Icelandic writers of the 12th and 13th centuries distinguished between an earlier " age of burning " and a later " age of barrows," and the investigations of modern archaeologists have tended in general to confirm the distinction, though they have revealed also the burial-places of times antecedent to the age of burning.
This statue was found at Cherchel, and is held by some archaeologists to indicate an Egyptian settlement here about 1500 B.C.
The researches of archaeologists prove that Quaternary Man cared little what became of his fellow-creature's body.
Numerous isolated palaeolithic objects of the Mousterian type have been found in the neighbourhood of Rome in the quaternary gravels of the Tiber and Anio; but no certain traces of the neolithic period have come to light, as the many Pre" flint implements found sporadically round Rome pro- historic bably belong to the period which succeeded neolithic (called by Italian archaeologists the eneolithic period) inasmuch as both stone and metal (not, however, bronze, but copper) were in use.
Some archaeologists assign to the 1 I th, others (and with far better reasons) to the 8th century B.C., the earliest tombs of the Alban necropolis and the coeval tombs of the necropolis recently discovered in the Forum at Rome.
5.19 seq.), but, as has been made clear by French archaeologists who have explored these regions, Roman settlements are less frequent the farther we go west, and M.
Had the natives of Egypt been asked to choose between the preservation of Ptolemy's famed temple and the benefit to be derived from a considerable additional depth of water storage, there can be no question that they would have preferred the latter; but they were not consulted, and the classical sentiment and artistic beauty of the place, skilfully pleaded by archaeologists and artists, prevailed.
Napoleons great military expedition in 1798 was accompanied by a scientific commission including artists and archaeologists, the results of whose labors fill several of the magnificent volumes of the, Description de lEgypte.
Archaeologists have variously interpreted its original purpose, whether as church door, city gate or palace gate.
The most brilliant results in Asia were obtained by American archaeologists at Sardis.
IRON AGE, the third of the three periods, Stone, Bronze and Iron Ages, into which archaeologists divide prehistoric time; the weapons, utensils and implements being as a general rule made of iron (see Archaeology).
But archaeologists have generally abandoned this conjecture.'
During these works some local archaeologists attempted to penetrate the cave but were driven away by the labourers with curses.
The early history of metal-working in Greece is extremely obscure, and archaeologists are divided in opinion even on so important a question as the relative use of bronze and iron in the Homeric age.
Six great cities of India in the time of Buddha: archaeologists differ as to its position.
Hence it is not remarkable that almost all the names mentioned in this note have been found by archaeologists (cf.
BRONZE AGE, the name given by archaeologists to that stage in human culture, intermediate between the Stone and Iron Ages, when weapons, utensils and implements were, as a general rule, made of bronze.
Not a few archaeologists have denied that there ever was a distinct Bronze Age.