A distinct sub-family, Lophiomyinae, is represented by the Central African arboreal spiny rats, Lophiomys, of which there are two or three species.
Owing to the antiquity of both placentals and marsupials, the arboreal character of the feet of the modern forms of the latter is of little importance.
The first family is that of the true or American opossums- Didelphyidae, in which there are five pairs of upper incisors, while the feet are of the presumed primitive arboreal type, the hind foot having the four outer toes subequal and separate, with the first opposable to them all.
All are animals of small or moderate size and arboreal habits, feeding on a vegetable or mixed diet, and inhabiting Australia, Papua and the Moluccan Islands.
Cuscuses and phalangers form a numerous group, all the members of which are arboreal, and some of which are provided with lateral expansions of skin enabling them to glide from tree to tree like flying-squirrels.
Arboreal species include the well-known opossums (Phalanger); the extraordinary tree-kangaroo of the Queensland tropics; the flying squirrel, which expands a membrane between the legs and arms, and by its aid makes long sailing jumps from tree to tree; and the native bear (Phascolarctos), an animal with no affinities to the bear, and having a long soft fur and no tail.
Most are arboreal, but the ring-tailed lemur (L.
Its arboreal vegetation is richer both in genera and species than that corresponding to it in the Old World.
Birds being of all animals most particularly adapted for extended and rapid locomotion, it became necessary for him to eliminate from his consideration those groups, be they small or large, which are of more or less universal occurrence, and to ground his results on what was at that time commonly known as the order Insessores or Passeres, comprehending the orders now differentiated as Passeriformes, Coraciiformes and Cuculiformes, in other words the mass of arboreal birds.
As a whole, Australia is rich in parrots, of which it has several very peculiar forms, but Picarians in old-fashioned parlance, of all sorts - certain kingfishers excepted - are few in number, and the pigeons are also comparatively scarce, no doubt because of the many arboreal predaceous marsupials.
Opisthocomi.-Arboreal, with long spina externa; without basipterygoid processes.
The surface of the plateau is generally open campo and scrubby arboreal growth called caatingas, but the streams are generally bordered with forest, especially in the deeper valleys.
The rains are quickly absorbed by the light porous soil and leave only temporary effects on the surface, where arboreal growth is stunted and grasses are commonly thin and harsh.
The extreme length of the limbs and the absence of a tail are other features of these small apes, which are thoroughly arboreal in their habits, and make the woods resound with their unearthly cries at night.
They differ greatly from all other members of the family (Macropodidae), being chiefly arboreal in their habits, and feeding on bark, leaves and fruit.
Of Quadrumana there are about fifty species in Brazil, all arboreal, thirty-eight of which inhabit the Amazon region.
The sloth (Bradypus) is an arboreal animal which feeds almost exclusively on the foliage of the Cecropias.
They feed on animals which likewise lead an arboreal life, rarely on eggs.
The 1300 to 1400 species contain terrestrial, arboreal and aquatic forms, many of which are highly specialized.
Some are more or less aquatic, others are absolutely arboreal, others again prefer dry, sandy or rocky localities according to their food.
They comprise about 300 species of terrestrial, arboreal and aquatic forms, and as a group they are almost cosmopolitan, including Madagascar, but excepting new Zealand.
Long-tailed, terrestrial and arboreal forms. The tree-snakes are mostly green above with the under parts white or yellow.
The majority lead an exclusively arboreal life; only a few descend to the ground in search of their food.
They prey upon every kind of arboreal animal - birds, tree-frogs, tree-lizards, &c. All seem to be diurnal, and the larger kinds attain to a length of about 4 ft.
The features by which the treesnakes are distinguished are still more developed in the whip-snakes (Dryophis), whose excessively slender body has been compared to the cord of a whip. Although arboreal, like the former, they are nocturnal in their habits, having a horizontal instead of a round pupil of the eye.
It is arboreal, bright green above; the end of the prehensile tail is usually bright red.
This tribe includes some eighteen families of terrestrial, arboreal and marsh-haunting bugs, as well as those aquatic Heteroptera that live on the surface-film of water.
The arboreal flora of Louisiana and Arkansas extends into north-eastern Texas, conformable with the Coastal Plain, where, immediately south of the Colorado river, the great pine belt of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts terminates.
Ecureuil), properly the name of the wellknown red, bushy-tailed British arboreal mammal, Sciurus vulgaris, typifying the genus Sciurus and the family Sciuridae, but in a wider sense embracing all the rodents included in this and a few nearly allied genera.
What may be called typical, that is to say arboreal, squirrels are found throughout the greater part of the tropical and temperate regions of both hemispheres, although they are absent both from Madagascar and Australasia.
The larger species, as might be expected from their heavier build, are somewhat less strictly arboreal in their habits than the smaller ones.
In the Sciuridae the two main bones (tibia and fibula) of the lower half of the leg are quite separate, the tail is round and hairy, and the habits are arboreal and terrestrial.
They associate in parties and are mainly arboreal, leaping from bough to bough with an agility that suggests flying through the air.
In habits some are partially arboreal, others wholly terrestrial, and a few more or less aquatic. Among the latter, the most remarkable are the fish-eating rats (Ichthyomys) of North-western South America, which frequent streams and feed on small fish.
The majority live on broken ground, with or without much vegetation; many are arboreal and many are true desert animals, while a few are more or less aquatic; one, the leguan of the Galapagos, Amblyrhynchus, even enters the sea.
According to the very varied habits, their external appearance varies within wide limits, there being amongst the 300 species, with 50 genera, arboreal, terrestrial, burrowing and semi-aquatic forms, and even one semi-marine kind.
Some are entirely arboreal, dwellers in forests, while others, like Cnemidophorus and Asneiva, are strictly terrestrial, with great running powers; a few dwell below the surface and are transformed into almost limbless ' For anatomical detail and experiments, see R.
For example, among the land vertebrates the feet (associated with the structure of the limbs and trunk) may take one of many lines of adaptation to different media or habitat, either aquatic, terrestrial, arboreal or aerial; while the teeth (associated with the structure of the skull and jaws) also may take one of many lines of adaptation to different kinds of food, whether herbivorous, insectivorous or carnivorous.
As instances of such combinations, some of the (probably herbivorous) Eocene monkeys with arboreal limbs have teeth so difficult to distinguish from those of the herbivorous ground-living Eocene horses with cursorial limbs that at first in France and also in America they were both classed with the hoofed animals.
Huxley in 1880 briefly suggested the arboreal origin, or primordial treehabitat of all the marsupials, a suggestion abundantly confirmed by the detailed studies of Dollo and of Bensley, according to which we may imagine the marsupials to have passed through (r) a former terrestrial phase, followed by (2) a primary arboreal phase - illustrated in the tree phalangers - followed by (3) a secondary terrestrial phase - illustrated in the kangaroos and wallabies - followed by (4) a secondary arboreal phase - illustrated in the tree kangaroos.
Labiatus), skunk (Mephitis, Spilogale and Conepatus), marten, several species of opossum (including a pigmy species of the Tres Marias islands), sloth, two species of ant-bear (Myrmecophaga tetradactylus and Cyclothurus didactylus), armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), a small arboreal porcupine (Synetheres mexicanus), the kinkajou (Cercoleptes caudivolvulus), three species of deer - the white-tailed Cariacus toltecus, the little black-faced brocket, Coassus rufinus, which is also found in Brazil, and the Sonora deer (Odocoileus couesi) - the Mexican bighorn (Ovis mexicanus) of Chihuahua, at least two species of hare (Lepus calotis and L.
Alligators and crocodiles are numerous in the lagoons and rivers of the coast and the iguana is to be found everywhere throughout the tropical lowlands, the large black Ctenosura acanthinurus being partly arboreal in habit when full grown.
The arboreal life of the tropical forests has developed the treeclimbing habit among snakes as well as among frogs and toads, and also the habit of mimicry, their colour being in harmony with the foliage or bark of the trees which form their " hunting-grounds."
Fire was generally used in clearing these lands, with the result that their arboreal vegetation was ultimately killed and their fertility destroyed.
Rodents may be characterized as terrestrial, or in some cases arboreal or aquatic, placental mammals of small or medium size, with a milk and a permanent series of teeth, plantigrade or partially plantigrade, and generally five-toed, clawed (rarely nailed or semi hoofed) feet, clavicles or collar-bones (occasionally imperfect or rudimentary), no canine teeth, and a single pair of lower incisors, opposed by only one similar and functional pair in the upper jaw.
Indeed, despite the fact that they present much diversity of habit - some being arboreal, as the squirrels, many of which are provided with expansions of skin or parachutes on which they glide from tree to tree; some cursorial, as the hares; others jumpers, as the jerboas; others fossorial, as the mole-rats; and others aquatic, as the beavers and waterrats - no important structural modifications are correlated with such diversity of habit.
The second genus, Heliosciurus, includes arboreal African squirrels, typified by H.
Dormice a r e small arboreal rodents, with long hairy tails, large eyes and ears, and short fore-limbs, ranging over Europe, Asia and Africa.
The majority of these rodents, many of which are of large size, are terrestrial, but a few are burrowing, others arboreal and two or three aquatic.
All the New World porcupines, representing the family Erethizontidae (or Coendidae) are arboreal in their habits, and have the upper lip undivided, the cheek-teeth rooted, the clavicles complete, the soles of the feet tuberculated and three pairs of teats.
The hutia (Capromys pilorides) is nearly as large, arboreal in habits, and a native of Cuba, where it is the largest indigenous mammal.
There is no great display of arboreal vegetation anywhere except in the valleys and lower passes where the rainfall is abundant, but in general terms it may be said that the rainfall and vegetation which characterize the Quito basin soon disappear as one proceeds southward, and are substituted by arid conditions.
The greater part of Patagonia is comparatively barren and has no arboreal growth, except in the well-watered valleys of the Andean foothills.
The family, comprising some 200 species, with about 30 genera, shows great diversity of form; the terrestrial members are mostly flatbodied, the arboreal more laterally compressed and often with a very long tail.
The majority are humivagous, while others are truly arboreal, e.g.
That it could fly is certain, and the feet show it to have been well adapted to arboreal life.
It is noteworthy, also, for the large number of species having arboreal habits, the density and extent of the Amazon forests favouring their development rather than the development of those of terrestrial habits.
Syriaca, with somewhat different habits, as it haunts rocks rather than trees; and four or five representatives of the European arboreal species have their respective ranges from Asia Minor to the Himalayas and Northern China.
A long and bushy tail, for instance, is a useful balancer and is a not uncommon feature in mammals which lead an active arboreal life.
In structure the jays are not readily differentiated from the pies; but in habit they are much more arboreal, delighting in thick coverts, seldom appearing in the open, and seeking their food on or under trees.