A court of arbitration appointed by the Continental Congress met at Trenton, New Jersey, in 1782, and on December 30th gave a unanimous decision in favour of Pennsylvania.
By it an arbitration court was instituted, consisting of a president and assessors representing the employers' unions and the workers' unions respectively; in any trade in which a dispute occurs, any union of workmen or employers registered under the act was given the right to bring the matter before the arbitration court, and if the court makes an award, an application may be made to it to make the award a " common rule," which thereupon becomes binding over the trade affected, wherever the act applies.
In all this legislation one of the most hotly contested points was whether the arbitration court should be given power to lay it down that workers who were members of a trade union should be employed in preference to non-unionists.
It was eventually compromised by giving the power, but only with safeguarding conditions, to the Federal arbitration court.
An agitation began for the organization of Chambers of Labor, intended to look after the technical education of workmen and to form commissions of arbitration in case of strikes.
Arbitration under such conditions was contemptuously rejected, and after the king had ordered the sheriffs to seize the lands and goods of the revolting nobles, London opened its gates and peacefully welcomed the baronial army.
Side by side with this which we may call criminal jurisdiction - none the less real or coercive because its sanctions were purely spiritual - there grew up a quasi-jurisdiction in causes jurisdic= entirely temporal, based upon the free consent of the parties to accept the arbitration of the bishop. This system had also its roots in the New Testament (see Matt.
In South America strictly defined boundaries are still the exception, and the claims of neighbouring nations have very frequently given rise to war, though now more commonly to arbitration.'
Among the measures and events distinguishing his term as president were the following: The meeting of the Pan-American Congress at Washington; the passage of the McKinley Tariff Bill and of the Sherman Silver Bill of 1890; the suppressing of the Louisiana Lottery; the enlargement of the navy; further advance in civil service reform; the convocation by the United States of an international monetary conference; the establishment of commercial reciprocity with many countries of America and Europe; the peaceful settlement of a controversy with Chile; the negotiation of a Hawaiian Annexation Treaty, which, however, before its ratification, his successor withdrew from the Senate; the settlement of difficulties with Germany concerning the Samoan Islands, and the adjustment by arbitration with Great Britain of the Bering Sea fur-seal question.
After leaving public life he resumed the practice of the law, and in 1898 was retained by the government of Venezuela as its leading counsel in the arbitration of its boundary dispute with Great Britain.
In this capacity he appeared before the international tribunal of arbitration at Paris in 1899, worthily maintaining the reputation of the American bar.
1083) for the arbitration of the king of Sweden.
Gallatin worked at his new task with his usual industry, tact and patience, but the results were meagre, although an open breach on the delicate question of the north-east boundary of the United States was avoided by referring it to the arbitration of the king of the Netherlands.
These were contested by Germany, whose flag was hoisted on Yap, and the matter was referred to the arbitration of Pope Leo XIII.
ARBITRATION International arbitration is a proceeding in which two nations refer their differences to one or more selected persons, who, after affording to each party an opportunity of being heard, pronounce judgment on the matters at issue.
A fresh arbitration might have to be entered on to decide (I) what the law was, (2) whether it applied to the matter in hand.
Arbitration differs from Mediation in so far as it is a judicial act, whereas Mediation involves no decision, but merely advice and suggestions to those who invoke its aid.
In this respect international arbitration differs from civil arbitration, since a private arbitrator cannot delegate his office without express authority.
In civil arbitration, the decision or award may be made a rule of court, after which it becomes enforceable by writ of execution against person or property.
In the " Alabama " arbitration five arbitrators were nominated by the president of the United States, the queen of England, the king of Italy, the president of the Swiss Confederation, and the emperor of Brazil respectively.
In the Bering Sea arbitration there were seven arbitrators, two nominated by Great Britain, two by the United States, and the remaining three by the president of the French Republic, the king of Italy, and the king of Sweden and Norway respectively.
(See separate articles On Bering Sea Arbitration and "
The history of international arbitration is dealt with in the article Peace, where treaties of general arbitration are discussed, both those which embrace all future differences thereafter to arise between the contracting parties, and also those more limited conventions which aim at the settlement of all future differences in regard to particular subjects, e.g.
No self-respecting power would, of course, consent to submit to arbitration a question of life or death.
The boundary with French Guiana '(see' Guiana), which had long been a subject of dispute, was settled by arbitration in 1900, the award being rendered by the government of Switzerland.
Once this became known, the question was submitted for arbitration to the king of the Netherlands, who ruled the St. John River to be the border.