A court of arbitration appointed by the Continental Congress met at Trenton, New Jersey, in 1782, and on December 30th gave a unanimous decision in favour of Pennsylvania.
On the best mode of maintaining union, voluntary boards of arbitration, missionary bishops and missionaries, continental chaplains and the report of a committee on difficulties submitted to the conference.
In resolutions 44 to 53 the conference deals with the duty of the Church towards modern democratic ideals and social problems; affirms the responsibility of investors for the character and conditions of the concerns in which their money is placed (49); "while frankly acknowledging the moral gains sometimes won by war" strongly supports the extension of international arbitration (52); and emphasizes the duty of a stricter observance of Sunday (53).
These were referred to the arbitration of Queen Victoria, and, after a careful survey under the direction of Sir Thomas H.
The delay of the arbitration tribunal in London in giving its decision in the matter of the disputed boundary in Patagonia led to a crop of wild rumours being disseminated, and to a revival of animosity between the two peoples.
(See also the articles Arbitration And Conciliation; Trade Unions; Labour Legislation.) Victoria was the pioneer in factory legislation, the first Victorian act of that character dating from 1873.
The model followed in these two states was not Victoria but New Zealand, where an Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act was passed in 1894.
By it an arbitration court was instituted, consisting of a president and assessors representing the employers' unions and the workers' unions respectively; in any trade in which a dispute occurs, any union of workmen or employers registered under the act was given the right to bring the matter before the arbitration court, and if the court makes an award, an application may be made to it to make the award a " common rule," which thereupon becomes binding over the trade affected, wherever the act applies.
Unlike the latter, they reproduced the institution of district conciliation boards in addition to the arbitration court; but these boards were a failure here as they were in New Zealand, and after 1903 they fell into disuse.
In all this legislation one of the most hotly contested points was whether the arbitration court should be given power to lay it down that workers who were members of a trade union should be employed in preference to non-unionists.
It was the same question that formed the chief subject of debate over the Federal Conciliation and Arbitration Act, which, after causing the defeat of more than one ministry, passed through the Commonwealth parliament in 1904.
It was eventually compromised by giving the power, but only with safeguarding conditions, to the Federal arbitration court.
An additional duty was thrown on the Federal arbitration court by the Customs and Excise Tariff Acts of 1906, in which were embodied the principles known as the " New Protection."
An agitation began for the organization of Chambers of Labor, intended to look after the technical education of workmen and to form commissions of arbitration in case of strikes.
Arbitration under such conditions was contemptuously rejected, and after the king had ordered the sheriffs to seize the lands and goods of the revolting nobles, London opened its gates and peacefully welcomed the baronial army.
Side by side with this which we may call criminal jurisdiction - none the less real or coercive because its sanctions were purely spiritual - there grew up a quasi-jurisdiction in causes jurisdic= entirely temporal, based upon the free consent of the parties to accept the arbitration of the bishop. This system had also its roots in the New Testament (see Matt.
In South America strictly defined boundaries are still the exception, and the claims of neighbouring nations have very frequently given rise to war, though now more commonly to arbitration.'
Among the measures and events distinguishing his term as president were the following: The meeting of the Pan-American Congress at Washington; the passage of the McKinley Tariff Bill and of the Sherman Silver Bill of 1890; the suppressing of the Louisiana Lottery; the enlargement of the navy; further advance in civil service reform; the convocation by the United States of an international monetary conference; the establishment of commercial reciprocity with many countries of America and Europe; the peaceful settlement of a controversy with Chile; the negotiation of a Hawaiian Annexation Treaty, which, however, before its ratification, his successor withdrew from the Senate; the settlement of difficulties with Germany concerning the Samoan Islands, and the adjustment by arbitration with Great Britain of the Bering Sea fur-seal question.
After leaving public life he resumed the practice of the law, and in 1898 was retained by the government of Venezuela as its leading counsel in the arbitration of its boundary dispute with Great Britain.
In this capacity he appeared before the international tribunal of arbitration at Paris in 1899, worthily maintaining the reputation of the American bar.
1083) for the arbitration of the king of Sweden.
As early as1652-1654there is evidence of some slight organization for dealing with marriages, poor relief, " disorderly walkers," matters of arbitration, &c. The Quarterly or " General " meetings of the different counties seem to have been the first unions of separate congregations.
These were contested by Germany, whose flag was hoisted on Yap, and the matter was referred to the arbitration of Pope Leo XIII.
No self-respecting power would, of course, consent to submit to arbitration a question of life or death.
The boundary with French Guiana '(see' Guiana), which had long been a subject of dispute, was settled by arbitration in 1900, the award being rendered by the government of Switzerland.
Once this became known, the question was submitted for arbitration to the king of the Netherlands, who ruled the St. John River to be the border.