ARAS, the anc. Araxes, and the Phasis of Xenophon (Turk.
The Frat, separated by the easy pass of Deve-boyun from the valley of the Araxes (Aras), marks the natural line of communication between northern Persia and the West - a route followed by the nomad Turks, Mongols and Tatars on their way to the rich lands of Asia Minor.
On the Mesopotamian side there would seem, from the accounts of Xenophon and Ptolemy, to have been an affluent which joined the Euphrates between Deir and `Ana, called Araxes by the former, Saocoras by the latter; but no trace of such a stream has been found by modern explorers and the country in general has always been uninhabited.
Side of the same sea it zigzags from the Black Sea to the Caspian, utilizing the river Aras (Araxes) for part of the distance.
Some rivers, notably the Kur (Kyros, Araxes) which flows into the Bakhtegan lake east of Shiraz, drain into inland depressions or lakes.
The southern boundary of Caucasia is in part coincident with the river Aras (Araxes), in part purely conventional and political.
Situated in the direction of Atropatene, and consequently Airyanem Vaejo is for the most part identified with the district of Arran on the river Aras (Araxes), close by the north-western frontier of Media.
Again war all but broke out; but, through the intervention of France, a treaty of partition was signed at Constantinople on the 23rd of June 1724, whereby the shores of the Caspian from the junction of the Kur and the Arras (Araxes) northwards should belong to Russia, while the western provinces of Persia should fall to the share of Turkey.
According to it the Scyths dwell in Asia, and were forced by the Massagetae over the Araxes (Volga ?) into the land of the Cimmerians.
By the river Aras (Araxes), while it has the Caspian Sea, Gilan and Khamseh (Zenjan) on the E., Kurdistan on the S., and Asiatic Turkey on the W.
The solid crusts found at the bottom of the salt lakes of the Araxes plain in Armenia contain about 16% of carbonate and 80 of sulphate.
But there was a tradition of a line of bishops earlier than Gregory in Siuniq, a region east of Ararat along the Araxes (Aras), which in early times claimed to be independent of the catholicus.
Both arms of the Euphrates have their rise in this country as well as the Aras (Araxes) and the Chorokh (Acampsis).
After his coronation he carried on three successful campaigns against the Saracens and Seliuk Turks, whom he drove beyond the Euphrates; in a fourth he was disastrously defeated by Alp Arslan on the banks of the Araxes and taken prisoner.
The river Cyrus is the Kur of the Persians, now generally named Bandamir; the historians of Alexander call it Araxes, and give to its tributary, the modern Pulwar, which passes by the ruins of Murghab and Persepolis, the name Medos (Strabo xv.
The garden of Eden is placed in the valley of the Araxes; Marand is the burial-place of Noah's wife; at Arghuri, a village near the great chasm, was the spot where Noah planted the first vineyard, and here were shown Noah's vine and the monastery of St James, until village and monastery were overwhelmed by a fall of rock, ice and snow, shaken down by an earthquake in 1840.
The name Urardhu, originally that of a principality which included Mount Ararat and the plain of the Araxes, is given in Assyrian inscriptions from the 9th century B.
(743 B.C.), and driven north of the Araxes, where he made Armavir, Armauria, his capital.
The limits of the Biblical Ararat are not known, but they must have included the lofty Armenian plateau which overlooks the plain of the Araxes on the north, and that of Mesopotamia on the south.