Araucaria imbricata, the Chile pine, or "monkey puzzle," was introduced into Britain in 1796.
Araucaria brasiliana, the Brazil pine, is a native of the mountains of southern Brazil, and was introduced into Britain in 1819.
Araucaria excelsa, the Norfolk Island pine, a native of Norfolk Island and New Caledonia, was discovered during Captain Cook's second voyage, and introduced into Britain by Sir Joseph Banks in 1793.
Araucaria Cunninghami, the Moreton Bay pine, is a tall tree abundant on the shores of Moreton Bay, Australia, and found through the littoral region of Queensland to Cape York Peninsula, also in New Guinea.
Araucaria Bidwilli, the Bunya-Bunya pine, found on the mountains of southern Queensland, between the rivers Brisbane and Burnett, at 27° S.
Araucaria Rulei, which is a tree of New Caledonia, attains a height of 50 or 60 ft.
Araucaria Cookii, also a native of New Caledonia, attains a height of 150 ft.
On the lower slopes of the Andes are found oak, beech, cedar, Winter's bark, pine (Araucaria imbricata), laurel and calden (Prosopis algarobilla).
Amongst Cycads, Zamia is confined to the New World, and amongst Conifers, Araucaria, limited to the southern hemisphere, has scarcely less antiquity; Pinus reaches as far south as Cuba and Nicaragua.
Amongst Conifers, Podocar pus is found throughout, Agathis is common to Australia, New Zealand and New Caledonia; Araucaria ~ ~he first and last.
Amongst Coniferae Podocarpus is common to this and preceding sub-regions; Libocedrus extends from California to New Zealand and New Caledonia; Fitzroya is found in Chile and Tasmania; and Araucaria in its most familiar species occurs in Chile.
Other Conifers Araucaria inzbricata, Chile pine or monkey-puzzle).
On the temperate uplands of the southern states there are imposing forests of South American pine (Araucaria brasiliensis), whose bare trunks and umbrella-like tops give to them the appearance of open woodland.
The alpine flora, beginning at 6000 ft., is specially characterized by its rhododendrons, pines (Araucaria and Libocedrus), and palms, by numerous superb species of Agapetes (Ericaceae), and on the summits by an extraordinary association of species characteristically European (Rubus, Ranunculus, Leontodon, Aspidium), Himalayan, New Zealandian (Veronica), Antarctic and South American (Drymus, Libocedrus).
The Norfolk Island pine (Araucaria excelsa) is a magnificent tree, with a height sometimes exceeding 200 ft.
The family Araucarieae, represented by Araucaria and Agathis, should perhaps be separated as a special class and a rearrangement of other genera more in accord with a natural system of classification will soon be possible; but for the present its twofold subdivision may be retained.
Araucaria imbricata, the Monkey-puzzle tree, A.
With a few exceptions conifers are evergreen, and retain the leaves for several years (10 years in Araucaria imbricata, 8 to io in Picea.
The needle-form represented by Pinus, Cedrus, Larix, &c., the linear flat or angular leaves, appressed to the branches, of Thuja, Cupressus, Libocedrus, &c. The flat and comparatively broad leaves of Araucaria imbricata, A.
The stamens of Araucaria and Agathis are peculiar in bearing several long and narrow free pollen-sacs; these may be compared with the sporangiophores of the horsetails (Equisetum); in Taxus (yew) the filament is attached to the centre of a large circular distal expansion, which bears several pollen-sacs on its under surface.
The female flowers (cones) vary considerably in size; the largest are the more or less spherical cones of Araucaria - a single cone of A.
Smaller cones, less than an inch long, occur in the larch, Athrotaxis (Tasmania), Fitsroya (Patagonia and Tasmania), &c. In the Taxodieae and Araucarieae the cones are similar in appearance to those of the Abietineae, but they differ in the fact that the scales appear to be single, even in the young condition; each cone-scale in a genus of the Taxodiinae (Sequoia, &c.) bears several seeds, while in the Araucariinae (Araucaria and Agathis) each scale has one seed.
In Araucaria Cookii and some allied species each scale has a small pointed projection from its upper face near the distal end, the scales of Cunninghamia (China) are characterized by a somewhat ragged membranous projection extending across the upper face between the seeds and the distal end of the scale; in the scales of Athrotaxis (Tasmania) a prominent rounded ridge occupies a corresponding position.
In Araucaria the cone-scale is regarded as consisting of a flat carpel, of which the placenta has not grown out into the scale-like structure.
C, seminiferous scale as fused pair of leaves (1 1, 1 2, l 3, first, second and third leaves; b, shoot; Br, bract), D, cone-scale of Araucaria (n, nucellus; i, integument; x, xylem).
In Araucaria and Saxegothaea the nucellus itself projects beyond the open micropyle and receives the pollen-grains direct.
Pinus and Picea) - in which the cone-scales persist for some time after the seeds are ripe - the cones hang down and so facilitate the fall of the seeds; in Cedrus, Araucaria and Abies the scales become detached and fall with the seeds, leaving the bare vertical axis of the cone on the tree.
In all cases, except some species of Araucaria (sect.
Araucaria imbricata) are characterized by a carrot-shaped hypocotyl, which doubtless serves as a food-reservoir.
In the Araucarian type of wood (Araucaria and Agathis) the bordered pits, which occur in two or three rows on the radial walls of the tracheids, are in mutual contact and polygonal in shape, the pits of the different rows are alternate and not on the same level; in this type of wood the annual rings are often much less distinct than in Cupressus, Pinus and other genera.
Araucaria imbricata, &co) the leaf-trace leaves the stele of the stem as a single bundle which splits up into several strands in its course through the cortex.
Araucaria, the leaf-traces persist for a considerable time, perhaps indefinitely, and may be seen in tangential sections of the wood of old stems. The leaf-trace in the Coniferales is simple in its course through the stem, differing in this respect from the double leaf-trace of Ginkgo.
In the leaves of Araucaria imbricata, in which palisade-tissue occurs in both the upper and lower part of the mesophyll, the resin-canals are placed between the veins; in some species of Podocarpus (sect.