At this point Aratus appealed to Sparta to help the Achaeans in repelling an expected Aetolian attack, and Agis was sent to the Isthmus at the head of an army.
Century B.C.) and Aratus (3rd century B.C.); Ptolemy and Tycho Brahe catalogued 28 stars, Hevelius gave 29.
B.C.) and Aratus (3rd cent.
It is also a constellation, mentioned by Eudoxus (4th century B.e.) and Aratus (3rd century B.C.), and catalogued by Ptolemy, 25 stars, Tycho Brahe 25, and Hevelius 38.38.
19; Aratus, Phaenomena, 96.
Aratus carried out a recension of the Odyssey, and Berossus composed a Babylonian history in Greek; under Antiochus III.
Aratus of Soli in Cilicia, in his poetical Prognostics of Stars and the World, refers to a globe in his possession.
In 243 Corinth was freed by Aratus and incorporated into the Achaean league.
AURIGA (the "charioteer" or "waggoner"), in astronomy, a constellation of the northern hemisphere, found in the catalogues of Eudoxus (4th century B.e.) and Aratus (3rd century B.C.).
Thus we have two poems of Aratus, who, though not resident at Alexandria, was so thoroughly imbued with the Alexandrian spirit as to be with reason included in the school; the one is an essay on astronomy, the other an account of the signs of the weather.
Varro was also the author of a Cosmographia, or Chorographia, a geographical poem imitated from the Greek of Eratosthenes or of Alexander of Ephesus, surnamed Lychnus; and of an Ephemeris, a hexameter poem on weather-signs after Aratus, from which Virgil has borrowed.
The representation thus handed down (in the verses of Aratus) has been thought to tally best with the state of the sky about 2000 B.C.; 12 and the mention of a polestar, for which Eudoxus was rebuked by Hipparchus, seems, as W.
Yet if he judges too favourably the leaders of the national party in England on the eve of the Norman Conquest, that is a small matter to set against the insight which he exhibits in writing of Aratus, Sulla, Nicias, William the Conqueror, Thomas of Canterbury, Frederick the Second and many more.
The latest name in the above list is that of Polybius, who died about 123 B.C. Apollonius Rhodius, Aratus and Theocritus were subsequently added to the " epic " poets.
18.487), Eudoxus (4th century B.C.) and Aratus (3rd century B.C.).
He edited Aratus (2 vols., 1 793, 1801) and part of Aristotle (Bipontine edition, vols.
In 1600 he edited the remains of Aratus, with the versions of Cicero, Germanicus and Avienus.
ARATUS, Greek statesman, was born at Sicyon in 271 B.C., and educated at Argos after the death of his father, at the hands of Abantidas, tyrant of Sicyon.
When twenty years old Aratus delivered Sicyon from its tyrant by a bold coup de main.
Ever anxious to extend the league, in which after 245 he was general almost every second year, Aratus took Corinth by surprise (243), and with mingled threats and persuasion won over other cities, notably Megalopolis (233) and Argos (229), whose tyrants abdicated voluntarily.
Opened hostilities, Aratus sustained several reverses, and was badly defeated near Dyme (226 or 225).
Rather than admit Cleomenes as chief of the league, where he might have upset the existing timocracy, Aratus opposed all attempts at mediation.
Of Macedon came to expel these marauders, Aratus became the king's adviser, and averted a treacherous attack on Messene (215); before long, however, he lost favour and in 213 was poisoned.
To Aratus is due the credit of having made the Achaean League an effective instrument against tyrants and foreign enemies.
Polybius (ii.-viii.) follows the Memoirs which Aratus wrote to justify his statesmanship, - Plutarch (Aratus and Cleomenes) used this same source and the hostile account of Phylarchus; Paus.
Aratus (Poet) >>
Aratus, Phaenomena, v.
The Phaenomena of Aratus is a poetical account of the astronomical observations of Eudoxus.
B.C.) and Aratus (3rd cent.
After several unavailing attempts Aratus contrived to win Argos for the Achaean League (229), in which it remained save during a brief occupation by the Spartans Cleomenes III.
Considerable fragments from a juvenile translation of Aratus have been preserved.
Aristo of Chios and Herillus of Carthage, Zeno's heterodox pupils, Persaeus, his favourite disciple and housemate, the poet Aratus, and Sphaerus, the adviser of the Spartan king Cleomenes, are noteworthy minor names; but the chief interest centres about Zeno, Cleanthes, Chrysippus, who in succession built up the wondrous system.
Most of all did it profit by the statesmanship of Aratus, who initiated its expansive policy, until in 228 it comprised Arcadia, Argolis, Corinth and Aegina.
Aratus probably also organized the new federal constitution, the character of which, owing to the scanty and somewhat perplexing nature of our evidence, we can only approximately determine.
But Aratus, whose jealousy could not brook to see a Spartan at the head of the Achaean league called in Antigonus Doson of Macedonia, and Cleomenes, after conducting successful expeditions to Megalopolis and Argos, was finally defeated at Sellasia, to the north of Sparta, in 222 or 221 B.C. He took refuge at Alexandria with Ptolemy Euergetes, but was arrested by his successor, Ptolemy Philopator, on a charge of conspiracy.
I; Plutarch, Cleomenes; Aratus, 35-46; Philopoemen, 5, 6; Pausanias ii.
SAGITTA ("the arrow" or "dart"), in astronomy, a constellation of the northern hemisphere, mentioned by Eudoxus (4th century B.C.) and Aratus (3rd century B.C.), and catalogued by Ptolemy, Tycho Brahe and Hevelius, who each described 5 stars.
Plutarch, Demetrius, Pyrrhus, Aratus; Justin xxiv.
But the only specimen of his work that has come down to us is the translation in Latin hexameters (generally attributed to him, although some consider Domitian the author), together with scholia, of the Phaenomena of Aratus, which is superior to those of Cicero and Avienus (best edition by A.
Other persons mentioned are Nicias, a physician of Miletus, whose name occurs in other poems, and Aratus, whom the Scholiast identifies with the author of the Phenomena.
Begins with a line of Alcaeus, 2 and xvii., as the Scholiast points out, with words used by Aratus at the beginning of the Phenomena.
PHYLARCHUS, a Greek historian, who flourished during the time of Aratus, the strategus of the Achaean League, in the 3rd century B.C. His birthplace is variously given as Athens, Naucratis, or Sicyon.
56-63) charges him with undue partiality for Cleomenes and unfairness towards Aratus; Plutarch (Aratus, 38), who is of the same opinion, did not hesitate to use him freely in his own biographies of Agis and Cleomenes.
In the main, however, the constellations transmitted to the West from Babylonia by Aratus and Eudoxus must have been arranged very much in their present order about 2800 B.C. E.
It may then be taken as certain that the heavens described by Aratus in 270 B.C. represented approximately observations made some 2500 years earlier in or near north latitude 400.
Eudoxus further wrote two works descriptive of the heavens, the Enoptron and Phaenomena, which, substantially preserved in the Phaenomena of Aratus (fl.
In 181, together with his father, Lycortas and the younger Aratus, he was appointed, in spite of his youth, a member of the embassy which was to visit Ptolemy Epiphanes, king of Egypt, a mission, however, which the sudden death of Ptolemy brought to a premature end (xxv.
The excesses of the soldiery were checked, and at his special intercession the statues of Aratus and Philopoemen were preserved (xxxix.
These fifty-three years are those between 220 (the point at which the work of Aratus ended) and 168 B.C., and extend therefore f om the outbreak of the Hannibalic War to the defeat of Perseus at Pydna.
His treatment of Aratus and Philopoemen, the heroes of the Achaean League, and of Cleomenes of Sparta, its most constant enemy, is perhaps open to severer criticism.
The original is lost, but a versification by Aratus (c. 270 B.C.), a poet at the court of Antigonus Gonatas, king of Macedonia, and an 'E rrynves or commentary by Hipparchus, are extant.
In the 'acvoµeva of Aratus 44 constellations are enumerated, viz.
On the other hand, Aratus kept the Pleiades distinct from Taurus, but Hipparchus reduced these stars to an asterism.
Aratus was no astronomer, while Hipparchus was; and from the fact that the latter adopted, with but trifling exceptions, the constellation system portrayed by Aratus, it may be concluded that the system was already familiar in Greek thought.