ARAS, the anc. Araxes, and the Phasis of Xenophon (Turk.
Side of the same sea it zigzags from the Black Sea to the Caspian, utilizing the river Aras (Araxes) for part of the distance.
The Kuma, the Terek and the Kura, with the Aras, which receives the waters of Lake Gok-cha, belong to Caucasia.'
The southern boundary of Caucasia is in part coincident with the river Aras (Araxes), in part purely conventional and political.
Ararat, and thence along the Aras to within 30 m.
This line of heights separates the basins of the Chorokh and the Rion (Black Sea) from those of the Aras and the Kura (Caspian Sea).
Situated in the direction of Atropatene, and consequently Airyanem Vaejo is for the most part identified with the district of Arran on the river Aras (Araxes), close by the north-western frontier of Media.
" General" Baiju, Noyan signifying a commander of ro,000) at Sitiens in Armenia, lying between the Aras river and Lake Gokcha, fifty-nine days' journey from Acre.
Gumri), a Russian town and fortified camp in Transcaucasia, government of Erivan, near the junction of the Arpa-chai with the Aras, 48 m.
The southern boundary never greatly altered; it did at times reach the Kur and the Aras, but on that side the Khazars were confronted by Byzantium and Persia, and were for the most part restrained within the passes of the Caucasus by the fortifications of Dariel.
They appropriated the territory up to the Kur and the Aras, and roamed at large through Iberia, Georgia and Armenia.
By the river Aras (Araxes), while it has the Caspian Sea, Gilan and Khamseh (Zenjan) on the E., Kurdistan on the S., and Asiatic Turkey on the W.
The principal rivers are the Aras and Kizil Uzain, both receiving numerous tributaries and flowing into the Caspian, and the Jaghatu, Tatava, Murdi, Aji and others, which drain into the Urmia lake.
It includes the Kuba plain on the north-east slope of the Caucasus; the eastern extremity of that range from the Shad-dagh (13,960 ft.) and the Bazardyuz (14,727 ft.) to the Caspian, where it terminates in the Apsheron peninsula; the steppes of the lower Kura and Aras on the south of the Caucasus, and a narrow coast-belt between the Anti-Caucasus and the Caspian.
But there was a tradition of a line of bishops earlier than Gregory in Siuniq, a region east of Ararat along the Araxes (Aras), which in early times claimed to be independent of the catholicus.
Both arms of the Euphrates have their rise in this country as well as the Aras (Araxes) and the Chorokh (Acampsis).
The massif of Ararat rises on the north and east out of the alluvial plain of the Aras, here from 2 500 ft.
In length from a point /, Western on the river Aras, in 39 45 N.
From the point on the Aras River 20 m.
Taking the Kuren Dagh or Kopet Dagh to form the northern scarp of this plateau east of the Caspian, we find a prolongation of it in the highlands north of the political frontier on the Aras, and even in the Caucasus itself.
According to IsmaiI Zeno, who seems to have carefully recorded the events of the time, he left his temporary home on an island of Lake Van before he was eighteen, and, passing into Karabakh,3 between the Aras and Kur, turned in a south-easterly direction into Gilan.
A partition treaty had been signed between these two powers in 1723, by which the czar was to take Astarabad, Mazandaran, Gilan, part of Shirvan and Daghistan, while the acquisitions of the Porte were to be traced out by a line drawn from the junction of the Aras and Kur rivers, and passing along by Ardebil, Tabriz and Hamadan, and thence to Kerm~nshah.
Although, when the spring arrived and the shah led his forces to the Aras, the Russians had, it is true, retreated, yet territory had been regained by them as far south as the Talysh.
Remains of the sovereign were exposed to insult, the army was disturbed, the recently captured fort on the left bank of the Aras was abandoned; but the wisdom and resolution of the minister, Hajji Ibrahim, and of Mirza Mahommed Khan Kajar secured order and acceptance of the duly appointed heir.
On the latter occasion the shah is credited with gallantly swimming his horse across the Aras, and setting an example of energy and valour.
Amongst the higher mountains are the two Ararats; Ala-geuz Dagh, north of the Aras; Bingeul Dagh, south of Erzerum; and the peaks near Lake Van.
The rivers are the Euphrates, Tigris, Aras, Churuk Su (Chorokh) and Kelkit Irmak, all rising on the plateau.
The more important lakes are Van, 5100 ft., about twice the size of the Lake of Geneva, and Urmia, 4000 ft., both salt; Gokcha or Sevan, 5870 ft., discharging into the Aras; and Chaldir, into the Kars Chai.
In the valley of the Aras, and in the western and southern districts, the climate is more moderate.
It is situated on the Baluk Su (Fish river), a tributary of the Kara Su (Black river), which flows northwards to the Aras, and in a fertile plain bounded on the west by Mount Savelan, a volcanic cone with an altitude of 1 5,79 2 ft.
The other large river of this region, the Aras, has its sources, not in the Caucasus range, but on the Armenian highlands a long way south-west of Ararat.
The Tatars of Caucasia, who inhabit the upper Kuban, the steppes of the lower Kuma and the Kura, and the Aras, number about 1,350,000.