KYAUKPYU, a district in the Arakan division of Lower Burma, on the eastern coast of the Bay of Bengal.
The principal mountains are the Arakan Yomas, which send out spurs and sub-spurs almost to the sea-coast.
Long, running from Cape Negrais in the Arakan Yoma range of Burma, to Achin Head in Sumatra.
This range separates the Bay of Bengal from the Andaman Sea; and it contains much that is geologically characteristic of the Arakan Yoma, and formations common also to the Nicobars and to Sumatra and the adjacent islands.
Rasorial birds, such as peafowl, junglefowl, pheasants and partridges, though well represented in the Arakan hills, are rare in the islands; while a third of the different species found are peculiar to the Andamans.
Lar of Arakan and Pegu, H.
The province falls into three natural divisions: Arakan with the Chin hills, the Irrawaddy basin, and the old province of Tenasserim, together with the portion of the Shan and Karen-ni states in the basin of the Salween, and part of Kengtung in the western basin of the Mekong.
Of these Arakan is a strip of country lying on the seaward slopes of the range of hills known as the Arakan Yomas.
It stretches from Cape Negrais on the south to the Naaf estuary, which divides it from the Chittagong division of Eastern Bengal and Assam on the north, and includes the districts of Sandoway, Kyaukpyu, Akyab and northern Arakan, an area of some 18,540 sq.
To the east of the Arakan division, and separated from it by the Arakan Yomas, lies the main body of Burma in the basin of the Irrawaddy.
The second tract is that known as the dry zone of Burma, and includes thewhole of the lowlands lying between the Arakan Yomas and the western fringe of the Southern Shan States.
On the west, between the Pegu and the Arakan Yomas, stretches the Irrawaddy delta, a vast expanse of level plain 12,000 sq.
The Arakan Yomas starting from Cape Negrais extend northwards more or less parallel with the coast till they join the Chin and Naga hills.
The highest peak of the Arakan Yomas, Liklang, rises nearly io,000 ft.
South of Thayetmyo, where arms of the Arakan Yomas approach the river and almost meet that spur of the Pegu Yomas which formed till 1886 the northern boundary of British Burma, the valley of the Irrawaddy opens out again, and at Yegin Mingyi near Myanaung the influence of the tide is first felt, and the delta may be said to begin.
In the Arakan and Tenasserim divisions to an average of 90 in Rangoon and the adjoining portion of the Irrawaddy 'delta.
Along the southern part of the Arakan coast the sea spreads over the western Miocene zone.
There are two superintendents of the Shan States, one for the northern and one for the southern Shan States, and an assistant superintendent in the latter; a superintendent of the Arakan hill tracts and of the Chin hills, and a Chinese political adviser taken from the Chinese consular service.
Steatite is extracted from the Arakan hill quarries.
The Arakan Flotilla Company has also helped to open up the Arakan division.
Arakan is in the worst position of all, for it is connected with Burma by neither railway nor river, nor even by a metalled road, and the only way to reach Akyab from Rangoon is once a week by sea.
Forbes, F.S., Burma (London, 1878), Comparative Grammar of the Languages of Farther India (London, 1881), Legendary History of Burma and Arakan (Rangoon, 1882); J.
C. Rigby, History of the Operations in Northern Arakan and the Yawdwin Chin Hills (Rangoon, 1897); Sir J.
Shuja was defeated and fled to Arakan, where he perished; Mahommed was captured, thrown into the fortress of Gwalior, and died after seven years' confinement.
SANDOWAY, a town and district in the Arakan division of Lower Burma.
The country is mountainous, the Arakan range sending out spurs which reach the coast.
The rocks in the Arakan range and its spurs are metamorphic, and comprise clay, slates, ironstone and indurated sandstone; towards the S., ironstone, trap and rocks of basaltic character are common; veins of steatite and white fibrous quartz are also found.
Sandoway was ceded to the British, with the rest of Arakan, by the treaty of Yandabo in 1826.
The Baptists have also stations in Arakan and Assam where they link up with the Welsh Calvinistic Methodists (1845).
The chief mountains are the Arakan and Pegu Yoma ranges.
The greatest elevation of the Arakan Yomas in Henzada, attained in the latitude of Myan-aung, is 4003 ft.
Taxoides is found in Assam, Arakan and perhaps in China; and there is probably another in Tibet.
In Lower Burma the western face of the Arakan Yoma hills, like that of the Western Ghats in India, is exposed to the full force of the south-western monsoon, and receives a very heavy rainfall.
At the head of the Bay of Bengal in Chittagong district, side by side with coffee on the Nilgiri hills, on the forest-clad slopes of Kumaon and Kangra, amid the low-lying jungle of the Bhutan Dwars, and even in Arakan, the energetic pioneers of tea-planting have established their industry.
One expedition with gunboats proceeded up the Brahmaputra into Assam; another marched by land through Chittagong into Arakan, for the Bengal sepoys refused to go by sea; a third, and the strongest, sailed from Madras direct to the mouth of the Irrawaddy.
At last, after the loss of about 20,000 lives and an expenditure of £14,000,000, the king of Ava consented to sign the treaty of Yandabu, by which he abandoned all claim to Assam, and ceded the provinces of Arakan and Tenasserim, which were already in the military occupation of the British.
The whole valley of the Irrawaddy, from Rangoon to Prome, was occupied in a few months, and, as the king of Ava refused to treat, it was annexed, under the name of Pegu, to the provinces of Arakan and Tenasserim, which had been acquired in 1826.
On the west is the Arakan Yoma range, and on the east the Pegu Yomas; and the face of the country, where it does not rise into mountains, is everywhere broken ty low ranges of hills, many of which are barren and destitute of all vegetation.
AKYAB, a city and district in the Arakan division of Burma.
The city is situated at the confluence of the three large rivers Myu, Koladaing and Lemyu, and is the most flourishing city in the Arakan division.
It forms the northernmost district of Lower Burma, and consists of the level tract lying between the sea and the Arakan Yoma mountains, and of the broken country formed by a portion of their western spurs and valleys.
The four chief towns are Khumgchu in the extreme north-east of the district; Koladaing in the centre; Arakan, farther down the rivers; and Akyab on the coast, where their mouths converge.
This district passed into the hands of the British, together with the rest of Arakan division, at the close of the first Burmese war of 1825-1826.
Akyab was the metropolitan province of the native kingdom of Arakan, and the history of that country centres in it.
ARAKAN, a division of Lower Burma.
Length from northern extremity to Cape Negrais, about 400 m.; greatest breadth in the northern part, 90 m., gradually diminishing towards the south, as it is hemmed in by the Arakan Yoma mountains, until, in the extreme south, it tapers away to a narrow strip not more than 15 m.
The division has its headquarters at Akyab and consists of four districts - namely, Akyab, Northern Arakan Hill Tracts, Sandoway and Kyaukpyu, formerly called Ramree.
The principal rivers of Arakan are - (1) the Naaf estuary, in the north, which forms the boundary between the division and Chittagong; (2) the Myu river, an arm of the sea, running a course almost parallel with the coast for about 50 m.; (3) the Koladaing river, rising near the Blue mountain, in the extreme north-east, and falling into the Bay of Bengal a few miles south of the Myu river, navigable by vessels of from 300 to 400 tons burden for a distance 01 40 m.
Farther to the south, owing to the nearness of the range which bounds Arakan on the east, the rivers are of but little importance.
The natives of Arakan trace their history as far back as 2666 B.C., and give a lineal succession of 227 native princes down to modern times.