Carpenter (1899, 1902-1904) has lately endeavoured to show an exact numerical correspondence in segmentation between the Hexapoda, the Crustacea, the Arachnida, and the most primitive of the Diplopoda.
SPIDERS, the common English name of Arachnida of the order Araneae, resembling the Pedipalpi in many structural points, but differing from them as well as from all other Arachnida in retaining short abdominal appendages known from their silk-manipulating function as spinnerets or spinning mamillae, with which are associated silk glands.
The possession of silk-glands has also profoundly influenced the geographical distribution of spiders and has enabled them to cross arms of the sea and establish themselves on isolated oceanic islands which most of the orders of Arachnida are unable to reach.
ARACHNIDA, the zoological name given in 1815 by Lamarck (Gr.
The position of the Arachnida in the great sub-phylum Arthropoda, according to recent anatomical and embryological researches, is explained in the article Arthropoda.
The Arachnida form a distinct class or line of descent in the grade Euarthropoda, diverging (perhaps in common at the start with the Crustacea) from primitive Euarthropods, which gave rise also to the separate lines of descent known as the classes Diplopoda, Crustacea, Chilopoda and Hexapoda.
The first segment of the mesosoma of Scorpio and Limulus thus remains the first segment, and can be identified as such throughout the Eu-arachnida, carrying as it always does the genital apertures.
There are a number of other important points of structure besides those referring to the somites and appendages in which Limulus agrees with Scorpio or other Arachnida and differs from other Arthro- '11'1 poda.
The Crustacea have, in fact, three prosthomeres in the head and the Arachnida only two, and Limulus agrees with the Arachnida in this respect and differs from the Crustacea.
The coxal glands of the Arachnida are structures of the same nature as the green glands of the higher Crustacea and the so-called " shell glands " of the Entomostraca.
On the other hand, the entosternite of the Arachnida is a very large and important feature FIG.
This arrangement has not hitherto been detected in any other class than the Arachnida, and if it should ultimately prove to be peculiar to that group, would have considerable weight as a proof of the close genetic affinity of Limulus and Scorpio.
The mouth is relatively smaller in Scorpio than in Limulus - in fact is minute, as it is in all the terrestrial Arachnida which suck the juices of either animals or plants.
It has been considered by them as proving that Limulus, in spite of all its special agreements with Scorpio (which, however, have scarcely been appreciated by the writers in question), really belongs to the Crustacean line of descent, whilst Scorpio, by possessing Malpighian tubes, is declared to be unmistakably tied together with the other Arachnida to the tracheate Arthropods, the Hexapods, Diplopods, and Chilopods, which all possess Malpighian tubes.
In other words, the Malpighian tubes of the terrestrial Arachnida are homoplastic with those of Hexapoda and Myriapoda, and not homogenetic with them.
We are compelled to take a similar view of the agreement between the tracheal air-tubes of Arachnida and other tracheate Arthropods.
Leaving that question for consideration in connexion with the systematic statement of the characters of the various groups of Arachnida which follows on p. 475, it is well now to consider the following question, viz., seeing that Limulus and Scorpio are such highly developed and specialized forms, and that they seem to constitute as it were the first and second steps in the series of recognized Arachnida - what do we know, or what are we led to suppose with regard to the more primitive Arachnida from which the Eurypterines and Limulus and Scorpio have sprung ?
But most important of the evidences presented by the trilobites of affinity with Limulus, and therefore with the Arachnida, is the tendency less marked in some, strongly carried out in others, to form a pygidial or telsonic shield - a fusion of the posterior somites of the body, which is precisely identical in character with the metasomatic carapace of Limulus.
38), like that of Limulus and Scorpio, and that lateral spines on the pleura of the somites are frequent as in Limulus, and that neither metasomatic fusion of somites nor post-anal spine, nor lateral pleural spines are found in any Crustacean, nor all three together in any Arthropod besides the trilobites and Limulus - the claim of the trilobites to be considered as representing one order of a lower grade of Arachnida, comparable to the grade Entomostraca of the Crustacea, seems to be established.
Although the prae-oral pair of appendages in the higher Arachnida is usually chelate, it is not always so; in spiders it is not so; nor in many Acari.
We have now to offer a classification of the Arachnida and to pass in review the larger groups, with a brief statement of their structural characteristics.
Little is known of the form of the appendages in the lowest archaic Arachnida, but the tendency of those of the prosomatic somites has been (as in the Crustacea) to pass from a generalized bi-ramose or multi-ramose form to, that of uni-ramose antennae, chelae and walking legs.
The Arachnida are divisible into two grades of structure - according to the fixity or non-fixity of the number of somites building up the body: - Grade A (of the Arachnida).
- Extinct archaic Arachnida, in which (as in the Entomostracous Crustacea) the number of well-developed somites may be more or less than eighteen and may be grouped only as head (prosoma) and trunk or may be further differentiated.
The members of this group, whilst resembling the lower Crustacea (as all lower groups of a branching genealogical tree must do), differ from them essentially in that the head exhibits only one prosthomere (in addition to the eye-bearing prosthomere) with palpiform appendages (as in all Arachnida) instead of two.
The Anomomeristic Arachnida form a single sub-class, of which only imperfect fossil remains are known.
Pocock, assistant in the Natural History departments of the British Museum, for valuable assistance in the preparation of this article and for the classification and definition of the groups of Eu-arachnida here given.
Pocock accepts those views in all essential points and has, as a special student of the Arachnida, given to them valuable expansion and confirmation.
' Grade B (of the Arachnida) Nomomeristica.
- Arachnida in which, excluding from consideration the eye-bearing prosthomere, the somites are primarily (that is to say, in the common Q FIG.
The most important general change which has affected the structure of the nomomeristic Arachnida in the course of their historic development is the transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial life.
Aristotle had included in one class "Entoma" the six-legged arthropods which form the modern zoological class of the Hexapoda or Insecta, besides the Arachnida, the centipedes and the millipedes.
PEDIPALPI, Arachnida (q.v) related to the spiders, and serving in a measure to bridge over the structural interval between the latter and the scorpions.
A third division, the Tartarides, a subordinate group of the Uropygi, contains minute Arachnida differing principally from the typical Uropygi in having the caudal process unjointed and short.
Apart from the Tartarides, the Pedipalpi are large or medium-sized Arachnida, nocturnal in habits and spending the day under stones, logs of wood or loosened bark.
It is to be noted, however, that the Trilobita, which, according to the classification here adopted, are dealt with under Arachnida, are not very far removed, except in such characters as the absence of a shellfold and of eye-stalks, from the primitive Crustacean here sketched.
They are distributed thus: Vertebrata, 8 species; Insecta, 17; Arachnida, 12; Myriapoda, 2; Crustacea, 5; Vermes, 3; Mollusca, 1.
APTERA (Greek for "wingless"), a term in zoological classification applied by Linnaeus to various groups of wingless arthropods, including some of the insects, the centipedes, the millipedes, the Arachnida (scorpions, spiders, &c.) and the Crustacea.
Albinism is restricted to no particular class of the animal kingdom; for partial albinism at least is known to occur in Coelentera, worms, Crustacea, Myriapoda, Coleoptera,Arachnida and fishes.
TRILOBITES, extinct Arthropoda, formerly classified with the Crustacea, but of late years relegated to the Arachnida, which occurred abundantly in seas of the Cambrian and Silurian periods, but disappeared entirely at the close of the Palaeozoic epoch.
As in all Arachnida there is only a single pair of appendages in front of the mouth, and these were onebranched, long and filiform and acted as antennae.
Classes: Arachnida, Insecta (including Sub-Classes M y riapoda, Hexapoda), Crustacea (including Sub-Classes Entomostraca, Malacostraca), Epizoa (Epizootic Crustacea), Annellata (Chaeto p ods and Leeches), Cirripedia.