Yunan is still a popular synonym for Oroum, a Greek, among the Arabs; in India Yavana was long the generic name for all foreigners from the north and west, a use dating probably from Alexander's day and the Graeco-Bactrian monarchs.
7), which in later Old Testament times had a leading place among the northern Arabs, and is associated with Kedar (Isa.
94 seq.) as being at this time a strong tribe of some io,000 warriors, pre-eminent among the nomadic Arabs, eschewing agriculture, fixed houses and the use of wine, but adding to pastoral pursuits a profitable trade with the seaports in myrrh and spices from Arabia Felix, as well as a trade with Egypt in bitumen from the Dead Sea.
It is now known, however, that they were true Arabs - as the proper names on their inscriptions show - who had come under Aramaic influence.
During the latter Sassanids it is seldom mentioned, and when the Arabs came to Khorasan (641-642) it was of so little importance that, as Tabari relates, it did not even have a garrison.
TIGRIS (Old Persian Tigra, Diklat of the cuneiform inscriptions, Hiddekel of the Old Testament, Diglath of the Targum, Digla of the Arabs), a great river of western Asia, rising from two principal sources.
Persians and Arabs told the 1 Nativitas et victoriae Alexandri magni regis was the original title.
By the constant westward pressure of the eastern Arabs, which (after the restraining force of the great Mesopotamian kingdoms was weakened) assumed irresistible strength, the ancient Edomites were forced across the Jordan-Araba depression, and with their name migrated to the south of western Palestine.
The Arabs usually designate Jerusalem by names expressive of holiness, such as Beit el Makdis and El Mukaddis or briefly El Kuds, i.e.
To European eyes the native city, with its motley throng of Moors, Arabs, Jews and negroes, is the most interesting sight in Algiers.
The Arabs endeavoured to induce Geronimo to renounce Christianity, but as he steadfastly refused to do so he was condemned to death.
The remainder of the population - all Mahommedans - are Moors, Arabs, Berbers, Negroes, with a few Turks.
The flesh of the young camel resembles veal, and is a favourite food of the Arabs, while camel's milk forms an excellent and highly nutritious beverage, although it does not furnish butter.
But it seems possible that the tradition of marine nomenclature had never perished; that the 'AyaOov SaLï¿½ovos vijvos was really a misunderstanding of some form like Agdaman, while Ni crot Bapouavac survived as Lanka Balus, the name applied by the Arabs to the Nicobars.
150) concentrated in his writings the final outcome of all Greek geographical learning, and passed it across the gulf of the middle ages by the hands of the Arabs, Ptolemy.
550) to explain the phenomena of the apparent movements of the sun by means of an earth modelled on the plan of the Jewish Tabernacle gave place ultimately to the wheel-maps - the T in an 0 - which reverted to the primitive ignorance of the times of Homer and Hecataeus.2 The journey of Marco Polo, the increasing trade to the East and the voyages of the Arabs in the Indian Ocean prepared the way for the reacceptance of Ptolemy's ideas when the sealed books of the Greek original were translated into Latin by Angelus in 1410.
The great outburst of Mahommedan conquest in the 7th century was followed by the Arab civilization, having its centres at Bagdad The Arabs and Cordova, in connexion with which geography again .
From the 8th to the 11th century a commercial route from India passed through Novgorod to the Baltic, and Arabian coins found in Sweden, and particularly in the island of Gotland, prove how closely the enterprise of the Northmen and of the Arabs intertwined.
As a specific for gout colchicum was early employed by the Arabs; and the preparation known as eau medicinale, much resorted to in the 18th century for the cure of gout, owes its therapeutic virtues to colchicum; but general attention was first directed by Sir Everard Home to the use of the drug in gout.
Anciently the country on both sides of the Euphrates was habitable as far as the river Khabur; at the present time it is all desert from Birejik downward, the camping ground of Bedouin Arabs, the great tribe of Anazeh occupying esh-Sham, the right bank, and the Shammar the left bank, Mesopotamia of the Romans, now called elJezireh or the island.
To these the semi-sedentary Arabs who sparsely cultivate the river valley, dwelling sometimes in huts, sometimes in caves, pay a tribute, called kubbe, or brotherhood, as do also the riverain towns and villages, except perhaps the very largest.
In the time of the Arabs these were the chief canals, and the cuts from the main channels of the Nahr `Isa, Nahr Sarsar, Nahr Malk (or Nahr Malcha), and Nahr Kutha, reticulating the entire country between the rivers, converted it into a continuous and luxuriant garden.
Under the Arabs the old designation again prevailed and the Euphrates is always described by the Arabian geographers as the river which flows direct to Kufa, while the present stream, passing along the ruins of Babylon to Hillah and Diwanieh, has been universally known as the Nahr Sura.
Below the bifurcation the river of Babylon was again divided into several streams, and indeed the most famous of all the ancient canals was the Arakhat (Archous of the Greeks and Serrat and Nil of the Arabs), which left that river just above Babylon and ran due east to the Tigris, irrigating all the central part of the Jezireh, and sending down a branch through Nippur and Erech to rejoin the Euphrates a little above the modern Nasrieh.
This ancient system of canalization was inherited from the Persians (who, in turn, inherited it from their predecessors), by the Arabs, who long maintained it in working order, and the astonishing fertility and consequent prosperity of the country watered by the Euphrates, its tributaries and its canals, is noticed by all ancient writers.
He was the ruler of all the Arabs, and was therefore called the caliph. [Footnote: Caliph (_pronounced_ ka'lif).]