Thus, when Cambyses, the son of Cyrus, made his great expedition against Egypt, with the fleets of Phoenicia and Cyprus and with the camels of the Arabians, it is highly probable that Palestine itself was concerned.
But he repudiated the daughter of Aretas in order to marry Herodias and so set the Arabians against him.
Between Yemen and India the traffic till Roman times was mainly in the hands of Arabians or Indians; between Alexandria and Yemen it was carried by Greeks (Strabo ii.
The Arabians are not known to have produced a terrestrial globe, but several of their celestial globes are to be found in our collections.
In 616 it was taken by Chosroes, king of Persia; and in 6 4 o by the Arabians, under `Amr, after a siege that lasted fourteen months, during which Heraclius, the emperor of Constantinople, did not send a single ship to its assistance.
The medieval Arabians invented our system of numeration and developed algebra.
In Joel it seems to stand as a general representative of the distant countries reached by the Mediterranean (in contrast with the southern Arabians, Sabaeans, ch.
1249), whose treatises De universo and De anima make extensive use of Aristotle and the Arabians, but display a similar Platonic leaning.
The Arabians more closely resembled the Hindus than the Greeks in the choice of studies; their philosophers blended speculative dissertations with the more progressive study of medicine; their mathematicians neglected the subtleties of the conic sections and Diophantine analysis, and applied themselves more particularly to perfect the system of numerals, arithmetic and astronomy.
C. xc.) The name is given to the Arabians mentioned by Eusebius (Hist.
It was translated into Latin, and more than once printed, as were some of his lesser works, which thus formed a part of the contribution made by the Arabians to European medicine.
In anatomy and physiology the Arabians distinctly went back; in surgery they showed no advance upon the Greeks; in practical medicine nothing new can be traced, except the description of certain diseases (e.g.
Janus Cornarius, from whom this is quoted, laments, however, that the Arabians still reigned in most of the schools of medicine, and that the Italian and French authors of works called Practica were still in high repute.
His ancestors had been celebrated as physicians for several generations, and his son was afterwards held by the Arabians to be even more eminent in his profession than Avenzoar himself.
Of Arabia for the Arabians could only be realized by summoning the great kings of the surrounding nations to recognize Islam; otherwise Abyssinia, Persia and Rome (Byzantium) would continue their former endeavours to influence and control the affairs of the peninsula.
Although the Arabians, as a rule, were in favour of the Omayyad family, they could not affect the succession of the `Abbasids.
Of great wars against Philistines, Arabians and Meunim, of building operations in Jerusalem (probably after the attack by Joash), and of political and social reforms. The prosperity which Judah enjoyed during this period (middle of 8th century) is illustrated by the writings of Amos and by the earliest prophecies of Isaiah (e.g.
The Arabians greatly improved the earlier apparatus, naming one form the alembic; they discovered many ethereal oils by distilling plants and plant juices, alcohol by the distillation of wine, and also distilled water.
What gave them a seeming importance in the eyes of posterity was the fact that the true history of the Egyptians, Mesopotamians, Arabians and Hittites had been well-nigh forgotten.
It was adopted not only in the monarchy of the Seleucidae but in general in all the Greek countries bordering on the Levant, was followed by the Jews till the 15th century, and is said to be used by some Arabians even at the present day.
3 Jehoshaphat's supremacy over Philistines and Arabians (2 Chron.
The book of Chronicles mentions Philistines and Arabians, and knows of a previous warning by a prophet of Mareshah (east of Lachish; 2 Chron.
The Romans knew the constellation as Arctos or Ursa; the Arabians termed the quadrilateral, formed by the four stars a, 0, y, b, Na'sh, a bier, whence it is sometimes known as Feretrum majus.
The Latin commentators, the Arabians and the schoolmen show how Aristotle has been the chief author of modern culture; while the vindication of modern independence comes out in his critics, the greatest of whom were Roger and Francis Bacon.
Zabarella to the Arabians, and himself gifted with great logical powers, always deserves study in his editions of the Organon and the Physics, and in his Doctrinae Peripateticae.
Along with the medical science of the period the Arabians contributed to the literature of physiognomy; `Ali b.
The rationalistic view that the word translated "ravens" should be "Arabians" is improbable.
Two years after, in order that the Arab element in Egypt might be strengthened, a colony of North Arabians (Qaisites) was sent for and planted near Bilbeis, reaching the number of 3000 persons; this immigration also restored the balance between the two branches of the Arab race, as the first immigrants had belonged almost exclusively to the South Arabian stock.
His commentaries were greatly esteemed among the Arabians, who translated many of them.
Judah was under Assyrian supremacy, and, although it was involved with Arabians in the revolt planned by Babylonia 1 Recently found to be the third of that name (H.
Later he was utterly defeated by a king of Arabians and fled to Jerusalem, only to find that the Pharisees had raised his people against him and would only be satisfied by his death.
The prophet of Islam was now, however, building up his power in Arabia, and although Heraclius paid no heed to the letter demanding his adhesion which he received from Medina (628), and the deputation of fifteen Rahawiyin who paid homage in 630 were not Edessenes but South Arabians, a few years later (636 ?) Heraclius's attempts, from Edessa as a centre, to effect an organized opposition to the victorious Arabs were defeated by Sa`d, and he fell back on Samosata.
11 This petty prince, therefore, sees no harm in having a band of Arabians for his garrison, as indeed Hezekiah long afterwards had his Urbi to help him against Sennacherib.
In Spain, again, where Ibn-Bajja, Ibn-Tufail and Ibn Rushd rivalled or exceeded the fame of the Eastern schools, the Arabians of pure blood were few, and the Moorish ruling class was deeply intersected by Jewish colonies, and even by the natives of Christian Spain.
VVhat the Latins painfully accomplished, owing to their fragmentary and unintelligent acquaintance with ancient philosophy, was already done for the Arabians by the scholars of Syria.
To the Arabians Aristotle represented and summed up Greek philosophy, even as Galen became to them the code of Greek medicine.
The progress amongst the Arabians on this side lies in a closer adherence to their text, a nearer approach to the bare exegesis of their author, and an increasing emancipation from control by the tenets of the popular religion.
The question had been suggested alike to East and West by Porphyry, and the Arabians were the first to approach the full statement of the problem.
The Arabians, on the contrary, emphasized the idealist aspect which had been adopted and promoted by the NeoPlatonist commentators.
The commentaries of the Arabians in this respect supplied nutriment more readily assimilated by the pupils than the pure text would have been.
But it is not less certain that the very considerable freedom of the Arabians from theological bias prepared the time when philosophy shook off its ecclesiastical vestments.
Meanwhile Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas, accepting the exegetical services of the Arabians, did their best to controvert the obnoxious doctrine of the Intellect, and to defend the orthodoxy of Aristotle against the unholy glosses of infidels.