After the suppression of the Arabi rebellion he was again installed in office (September 1882) by Tewfik, but in January 1884 he resigned rather than sanction the evacuation of the Sudan.
In his attitude towards Arabi, the would-be saviour of Egypt, Abd-ul-Hamid showed less than his usual astuteness, and the resulting consolidation of England's hold over the country contributed still further to his estrangement from Turkey's old ally.
The revolt of Arabi Pasha (September 1881) ~~ptIan had led to the meeting of an ambassadorial conference Quesnon.
The fortifications were strengthened in 1841, and remained in an antiquated condition until 1882, when they were renovated by Arabi Pasha.
Since satisfaction was not given for this and the forts were being strengthened at the instigation of Arabi Pasha, the war minister, the British admiral, Sir Beauchamp Seymour (afterwards Lord Alcester), sent an ultimatum on the 10th of July and opened fire on the forts the next day.
As Arabi did not submit, a British military expedition landed at Alexandria on the 10th of August, the sequel being the British occupation of the whole country, the history of which is set forth under Egypt.
(For the subsequent history of the Egyptian question see Egypt: History.) The revolt of Arabi Pasha in 1881 broke up the Anglo-French condominium in Egypt and led to outrages at Alexandria followed by a bombardment on the 11th of July 1882.
Arabi Pasha >>
ARABI PASHA (c. 1839-), more correctly AUMAD `ARABI, to which in later years he added the epithet al-Misri, " the Egyptian," Egyptian soldier and revolutionary leader, was born in Lower Egypt in 1839 or 1840 of a fellah family.
Arabi also attended lectures at the mosque El Azhar and acquired a reputation as an orator.
In all that followed Arabi was put forward as the leader of the discontented Egyptians; he was in reality little more than the mouthpiece and puppet of abler men such as Ali Rubi and Mahmud Sami.
On the ist of February 1881 Arabi and two other Egyptian colonels, summoned before a court-martial for acts of disobedience, were rescued by their soldiers, and the khedive was forced to dismiss his then minister of war in favour of Mahmud Sami.
A military demonstration on the 8th of September 1881, led by Arabi, forced the khedive to increase the numbers and pay of the army, to substitute Sherif Pasha for Riaz Pasha as prime minister, and to convene an assembly of notables.
Arabi became under-secretary for war at the beginning of 1882, but continued his intrigues.
Sherif fell in February, Mahmud Sami became prime minister, and Arabi (created a pasha) minister of war.
Arabi, after a brief fall from office, acquired a dictatorial power that alarmed the British government.
Order could only be restored through the intervention of Arabi, who now adopted a more distinctly anti-European attitude.
On the refusal of France to co-operate, the British fleet bombarded the forts (11th July), and a British force, under Sir Garnet Wolseley, defeated Arabi on the 13th of September at Tel-el-Kebir.
Arabi fled to Cairo where he surrendered, and was tried (3rd of December) for rebellion.
In accordance with an understanding made with the British representative, Lord Dufferin, Arabi pleaded guilty, and sentence of death was immediately commuted to one of banishment for life to Ceylon.
Exercised his prerogative of mercy, and in May 1901 Arabi was permitted to return to Egypt.
Arabi, as has been said, was rather the figurehead than the inspirer of the movement of 1881-1882; and was probably more honest, as he was certainly less intelligent, than those whose tool, in a large measure, he was.
The movement which he represented in the eye of Europe, whatever the motives of its leaders, "was in its essence a genuine revolt against misgovernment," 1 and it was a dim recognition of this fact which led Arabi to style himself "the Egyptian."
See EGYPT: History; also the accounts of Arabi in Khedives and Pashas, by C. F.
In these barracks Arabi Pasha surrendered to the British on the 14th of September 1882, the day after the battle of Tel el-Kebir.
After a brief period of prosperity, the Arabi rising, the riots at Alexandria, and the events generally which led to the British occupation of Egypt in 1882, followed by the losses incurred in the Sudan in the effort to prevent it falling into the hands of the Mahdi, brought Egypt once more to the verge of financial disaster.
Moreover, to make good the losses incurred at Alexandria, and to get money to pay the charges arising out of the Sudan War and the Arabi rebellion, a new loan was essential.
Kebir after Arabi Pasha and all his officers, from general to subaltern, had fled, and gave way only when decimated by the British field artillery firing case shot.
Among the mutinous soldiers on that occasion was a fellah officer calling himself Ahmed Arabi the Egyptian.
Arabi was first promoted, then made under-secretary for war, and ultimately a member of the cabinet.
Had the khedive and Riaz been allowed a free hand, Arabi and his colleagues would have found little mercy.
Arabi pleaded guilty, was sentenced to death, the sentence being commuted by the khedive to banishment; and Riaz resigned in disgust.
Even these latter, who gained most by the reforms, considered that they had good reason to complain, for the defeat of Arabi and the re-establishment of order had enabled the Christian money-lenders to return and insist on the payment of claims, which were supposed to have been extinguished by the rebellion.
So little danger to internal peace was apprehended that during this year Arabi Pasha, who had been in exile in Ceylon since 1882, was permitted to return to Egypt.
On the 1st of February 1881 a more serious disturbance arose at Cairo from the attempt to try three colonels, Ahmed Arabi, All Fehmy, and Abd-el-Al, who had been arrested as the ringleaders of the military party.
It soon became clear that ~the khedive was powerless, and that the military party, headed by Arabi, threatened to dominate the country.
The khedive was practically compelled to form a government in which Arabi was minister of war and Mahmud Sami premier, and Arabi took steps to extend his influence throughout his army.
The methods of binding the pagri are innumerable, each method having a distinctive name as arabi (Arab fashion); mansabi (official fashion, much used in the Deccan); mushakhi (sheik fashion); chakridar (worn by hadjis, that is those who have made the pilgrimage to Mecca); khirki-dar (a fashion of piling the cloth high, adopted by retainers of great men); latudar (top-shaped, worn by kayasths or writers); joridar (the cloth twisted into rope shape) (Plate I.
His administration, marked by much ability, lasted only two years, and was overthrown by the agitation which had for figure-head Arabi Pasha.
Had Riaz had his way Arabi and his associates would have been executed forthwith, and when the British insisted that clemency should be extended to the leaders of the revolt Riaz refused to remain in office, resigning in December 1882.