Some attempt was apparently made to rebuild the Temple; and the Jews of the Dispersion, who had perhaps been won over by Aqiba, supported the rebellion.
Whatever question may be possible as to the force or character of Pharisaism in the time of Christ, there can be no doubt that it became both all-pervading and ennobling among the successors of Aqiba (q.v.), himself one of the martyrs to Hadrian's severity.
After the fall of Jerusalem the new system of biblical exegesis founded by Rabbi Hillel reached its climax at Jamnia under the famous Rabbi Aqiba (d.
The opposition, as might be expected, came from the side of the Jews, and was due partly to the controversial use which was made of the version by the S Christians, but chiefly to the fact that it was not suffi- ciently in agreement with the standard Hebrew text estab.- lished by Rabbi Aqiba and his school.
Aquila was a Jewish proselyte of Pontus, and since he was a disciple of Rabbi Aqiba (d.
135), and (according to another Talmudic account) also of Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Joshua, the immediate predecessors of Aqiba, his version may be assigned to the first half of the 2nd century.
Aqiba, the great principle of the Torah.) It is useful for the interpretation of the Mishnah treatises Qbdashim and Teharoth.
Aqiba on the alphabet, and M.
5, § 4) testifies that the belief in the immediate appearance of the Messianic king gave the chief impulse to the war that ended in the destruction of the Jewish state; after the fall of the temple the last apocalypses (Baruch, 4 Ezra) still loudly proclaim the near victory of the God-sent king; and Bar Cochebas, the leader of the revolt against Hadrian, was actually greeted as the Messiah by Rabbi Aqiba (cf.
SIMON BEN YOHAI (2nd century A.D.), a Galilean Rabbi, one of the most eminent disciples of Aqiba (q.v.).
With Rabbi Aqiba (q.v.) and the synods of Jamnia (about 90 and 118 A.D.) a definite epoch in Judaism begins.
Here, too, was discussed the canonicity of the Song of Songs and of Ecclesiastes, and it is probable that here Aqiba and his colleagues fixed the official text of the canonical books.
Aqiba had an important share in the early development of the Mishnah (Strack, pp. 19, 89); and, in the collecting of material, he was followed notably by the school of Ishmael (about 130-160 A.D.), which has left its mark upon the early halakic Midrashim (see Midrash, § 5, i-3).
Here lived Rabbi Judah ha k-I adosh, editor of the Mishnah; here was edited the Jerusalem Talmud, and here are the tombs of Rabbi Aqiba and Maimonides.