2 seqq.), the Hellenic bridge and the vast rock-cut reservoirs of Eleutherna, the city walls of Itanos, Aptera and Polyrrhenia, and at Phalasarna, the rock-cut throne of a divinity, the port, and the remains of a temple.
Among the most important of these were - Lyttus or Lyctus, in the interior, south-east of Cnossus; Rhaucus, between Cnossus and Gortyna; Phaestus, in the plain of Messara, between Gortyna and the sea; Polyrrhenia, near the north-west angle of the island; Aptera, a few miles inland from the Bay of Suda; Eleutherna and Axus, on the northern slopes of Mount Ida; and Lappa, between the White Mountains and the sea.
Spring-tails and bristle-tails (order Aptera) of several species also frequent ants' nests.
The order Aptera also contains a few injurious species.
Wheeler (1893) and others in various insect embryos, while in the lowest insect order - the Aptera - a pair of minute jaws - the maxillulae - in close association with the tongue are present, as has been shown by H.
In specialized biting insects, such as beetles (Coleo C ptera), the labium tends to become a hard transverse plate bearing the pair of palps, a median structure - known as the ligula - formed of the conjoined laciniae, and a pair of small rounded processes - the reduced galeae - often called the " paraglossae," a term better avoided since it has been applied also to the maxillulae of Aptera, entirety different structures.
It does not appear to represent a pair of appendages, but the maxillulae of the Aptera become closely associated with it.
His order of wingless insects (Aptera) included Crustacea, spiders, centipedes and other creatures that now form classes of the Arthropoda distinct from the Hexapoda; it also included Hexapoda of parasitic and evidently degraded structure, that are now regarded as allied more or less closely to various winged insects.
Consequently the modern order Aptera comprises only a very small proportion of Linnaeus's " Aptera " - the spring-tails and bristle-tails, wingless Hexapoda that stand evidently at a lower grade of development than the bulk of the class.
The sub-class contains a single Order: Aptera, which is divided into two sub-orders: I.
The Aptera have perhaps the most extensive distribution of all animals, being found in Franz Josef Land and South Victoria Land, on the snows of Alpine glaciers, and in the depths of the most extensive caves.
In their insunken mouth and their jaws retracted within the head-capsule, the Collembola resemble the entotrophous division of the Thysanura (see Aptera), from which they are probably descended.
Further references will be found appended to the special articles on the orders (Aptera, Coleoptera, &C).
Apec vr7, a spider) to a class which he instituted for the reception of the spiders, scorpions and mites, previously classified by Linnaeus in the order Aptera of his great group Insecta.
Lamarck at the same time founded the class Crustacea for the lobsters, crabs and water-fleas, also until then included in the order Aptera of Linnaeus.
Orders: Aptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Neuroptera, Orthoptera, Coleoptera.
Hymenoptera are probably less widely distributed than Aptera, Coleoptera or Diptera, but they are to be found in all except the most inhospitable regions of the globe.
Cinerea; 1 and the galls of a Cynipid, Biorhiza aptera, usually developed on the rootlets of the oak, have been procured also from the deodar.
Pp. 495-508; Andrew Murray, Economic Entomology, Aptera, pp. 33 1 -374 (1876); and F.
2, see Hexapoda, Aptera) in association with the tongue (hypopharynx); by the forewings when present being modified into short quadrangular elytra without nervuration, the complex hindwings (fig.
APTERA (Greek for "wingless"), a term in zoological classification applied by Linnaeus to various groups of wingless arthropods, including some of the insects, the centipedes, the millipedes, the Arachnida (scorpions, spiders, &c.) and the Crustacea.
But the bristle-tails and springtails, which form the modern order Aptera, are all without any trace of wings, and, on account of several remarkable archaic characters which they exhibit, there is reason for believing that they are primitively wingless - that they represent an early offshoot which sprang from the ancestral stock of the Hexapoda before organs of flight had been acquired by the class.
In addition to the complete absence of wings and of metamorphosis, the Aptera are characterized by peculiar elongate mandibles (figs.
Many Aptera are covered with flattened scales like those of moths.
- The Aptera are divided into two divergent sub-orders, theThysanura or bristle-tails, and the Collembola or springtails.
- The Aptera are probably the most widely distributed of all insects.
The insect fauna of limestone caves both in Europe and North America is largely composed of Aptera, especially Collembola.
Not till the Tertiary do we find remains of Aptera in any quantity, species both of living and extinct genera being represented in the amber.
The embryonic development of several genera of Aptera, which has been carefully studied, will be more suitably described in comparison with that of other insects than here (see Hexapoda).
- The modern study of the Aptera may be said to date from the classical memoirs of T.