The College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts is managed by a board of trustees consisting of the governor, the president of the college, one member chosen by the alumni, and ten members appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the council for a term of four years, and it is maintained out of the proceeds of grants by the United States government, annual state appropriations and a private endowment.
The committee on ways and means deals with taxation, and the committee on appropriations with expenditure.
The West Virginia Colored Orphans' Home near Huntington is not under state control, but has received appropriations from the legislature.
The origin of such unendowed curacies is traceable to the fact that benefices were sometimes granted to religious houses pleno jure, and with liberty for them to provide for the cure; and when such appropriations were transferred to lay persons, being unable to serve themselves, the impropriators were required to nominate a clerk in full orders to the.
Instruction at state schools is either free or at merely nominal cost, and high schools, technical colleges and agricultural colleges are maintained by appropriations from the general revenues of the states.
Biennial appropriations are made for the support of the deaf and dumb, the blind and imbecile children at various institutions in Massachusetts and Connecticut.
The schools are supported by a poll-tax, by general appropriations, by local levies, and by the Chickasaw school fund.
Congress granted another township (thirty-six sections) for the university in 1892, and its income is supplemented by legislative appropriations for current expenses and special needs.
The library is supported almost entirely by municipal appropriations, though holding also considerable trust funds ($388,742 in 1905).
Its political leaders in the House of Delegates are restive under the control exercised by the Executive Council, but an attempt to hold up necessary appropriations resulted in the passage in July 1909 of an act continuing the appropriations of the previous year, whenever for any cause the lower house fails to pass the necessary financial legislation.
Contingent appropriations are forbidden, and the constitution contains a long list of subjects on which special laws may not be passed.
The university is supported by a state tax of 0.23 mills per dollar on the taxed property of the state, by special appropriations from the state (for " deficiency," for School of Mines, and for salaries of teachers in the department of mines and engineering), by the interest on state bonds and land contracts purchased with the proceeds of Federal land grants under the Morrill Act of 1862, by Federal appropriations under the Morrill Act of 1890 and the Hatch Act, and by students' fees, &c. the total of this income was estimated in1906-1907at 8628,500.
From 1909 to 1913 he was a member of Congress from the Dayton district and served on the Appropriations Committee.
Affiliated with the university is a school of music. The university's income is derived from the proceeds of invested funds and lands originally given by the United States, from permanent appropriations by the state and from the proceeds of a one-fifth mill tax to be used for buildings alone.
The national government also made appropriations for opening an inland waterway from Lewes to Chincoteague Bay, Virginia, for improving Wilmington harbour, and for making navigable several of the larger streams of the state.
Congressional appropriations for the survey, improvement and maintenance of waterways began in 1852; amounted to $15,055,688 between 1891 and 1896 inclusive, and $1,613,829 between 1897 and 1907; the total appropriated being $23,249,419.
The topics usually contained in a census suffered from the great addition of other and less pertinent matter, and the reputation of the work was unfavourably affected by the length of time required to prepare and publish the volumes (the last ones not appearing until near the end of the decade), the original underestimate of the cost of the work, which made frequent supplementary appropriations necessary, the resignation of the superintendent, Francis A.
Money bills may originate in either house, but at the final vote on such a bill in either house three-fifths of the members elected to that house must be present and the yeas and nays must be recorded; bills entailing appropriations for local or private purposes must receive a two-thirds majority to pass.
He may veto any bill passed by the assembly, or in the case of a bill making appropriations of money he may veto any item of it, and no bill or item of an appropriation bill which he vetoes within five days (Sunday excepted) after it has been presented to him, can become a law or part of a law unless passed over his veto in each house by a two-thirds vote of the members present.
He was certain that war with Spain was inevitable, and he did much to prepare the navy for hostilities, framing an important personnel bill, collecting ammunition, getting large appropriations for powder and ammunition used in improving the marksmanship of the navy by gunnery practice, buying transports and securing the distribution of ships and supplies (especially in the Pacific) in such a way that, when hostilities were declared, American naval victories would be assured.
The language now consists of about 15,000 words, of which compounds of two monosyllabic words and appropriations from foreign sources form a very large part.
Many other disputes speedily followed and when the final struggle between the English and French for possession in America came, although appropriations were made at its beginning to protect her own west frontier from the attacks of the enemy, a dead-lock between the two branches of the assembly prevented Maryland from responding to repeated appeals from the mother country for aid in the latter part of that struggle.
The public indebtedness of Mexico includes a foreign debt payable in gold, an internal debt payable in silver, and a floating debt covering unpaid balances on appropriations, unpaid interest, and other credits and obligations.
The state also makes appropriations for the payment of a portion of the tuition in high schools and academies distributing it among the districts in proportion to the rate of school tax in each, appropriations for paying a portion of the salary of school superintendents where two or more districts unite to form a supervising district, and appropriations for general school purposes to be distributed among the districts according to the number of teachers trained in normal schools and to average school attendance.
The state also makes annual appropriations for the care and education of blind and deaf and dumb persons in institutions outside of the state.
It enacts by-laws and ordinances, receives the reports of the local officials, passes their accounts, manages the town property, votes appropriations for each item of expenditure, and authorizes the necessary taxation.
The city councils pass local ordinances, vote appropriations, levy taxes and generally exert some control over appointments to administrative positions.
In some cities the mayor has received an absolute power of appointment; the departments, especially the boards of health, have large ordinance-making powers; statutes passed by the state legislature determine (excepting the states where cities can make their own charters) the principal lines of municipal policy, and the real control over appropriations and taxes is occasionally found vested in a board of estimate, consisting of the mayor, comptroller (the chief financial officer), and a few other administrative officials.
The most important committees are the following: ways and means, rules, elections, appropriations (with several committees for different branches of public expenditure), rivers and harbours, banking and currency, and foreign.
The most important measures are those dealing with the revenues and appropriations; and the procedure on these matters is slightly different from that on other bills.
Neither does it proceed on estimates of the sums needed to maintain the public service, for, in the first place, it does not know what appropriations will be proposed by the spending committees; and in the second place, a primary object of the customs duties has been for many years past, not the raising of revenue, but the protection of American industries by subjecting foreign imports to a very high tariff.
The state makes large appropriations for preventing and extinguishing forest fires, and in 1903 established a department of forestry in the university of Maine.
For the maintenance of the common schools each town is required (since 1905) to raise annually at least fifty-five cents per capita, exclusive of what may be received from other sources, and to this is added the proceeds of a state tax of one and a half mills on a dollar, onehalf the proceeds of the tax on savings banks, a 6% income from the permanent school fund (derived mainly from the sale of school lands), and state appropriations for the payment in part of the superintendence in towns that have united for that purpose.
Any section of a town may establish and maintain a high school provided there be not more than two such schools in one town, and the state makes appropriations for the support of such schools equal to one-half the cost of instruction, but the maximum grant to any one such school is $250.
The governor has ten days (Sundays not being counted) in which to exercise his veto power (which may be applied to any item or items of any bill making appropriations of money and embracing distinct items), and an affirmative vote in each house of two-thirds of the members elected is required to pass a bill over his veto.
This board is required to visit each of the institutions at least once a year to ascertain its condition and needs, and all proposed appropriations for their support, plans of buildings, proposed systems of sewerage, ventilation and heating must be submitted to it.
He was a member of the Appropriations Committee and chairman of the Committee on Civil Service Reform.
The appropriations for 1905 were as follows: war, 2,081,119 bolivianos; finance and industry, 1,462,259; government and fomento, 2,021,428; justice and public instruction, 1,878,941.
How the revenues are expended is shown in the estimates for 1907, in which the total expenditures were estimated at 134,830,532 pesos paper and 58,796,780 pesos gold, the principal appropriations being 16,192,780 pesos paper and 99,733 gold for the war department, 10,460,781 paper and 6,315,731 gold for the marine department, 4 0, 934, 2 73 paper and 16,984,671 gold for railways, and 6,324,817 paper for public works.
The army estimates for1910-1911show a total sum of £27,760,000 required for the home and colonial establishments, made up as follows (after deducting appropriations in aid): - 1 Does not include unattached list of officers, 853, or 736 R.A.M.C. officers not available until mobilization.
An act of 1909 provides that election campaign expenses shall be borne "only by the state and by the candidates," and authorized appropriations for this purpose.
All are supported by special taxes and appropriations - the Agricultural College receiving also the usual aid from the federal government.