In order to separate the distillate into various fractions, and to remove as much of it as possible free from condensed steam, it is now usual to employ condensing appliances of special form with outlets for running off the different fractions.
The appliances were modern but the cabinets were old and solid.
The principles are the same as those applied to low-pressure work, but all fittings and appliances must, of course, be made to stand the higher strain to which they are subjected.
The system is economical in fuel, but needs skilled attendance to keep the appliances and fittings in order.
Etymologically the word implies that the messages are written, but its earliest use was of appliances that depended on visual signals, such as the semaphore or optical telegraph of Claude Chappe.
It is of comparatively recent foundation (1860), and is carried on largely with French and Belgian capital, with modern appliances and with modern scientific knowledge.
It is the custom of the Royal Agricultural Society of England to invite competitions at its annual shows in specified classes of implements, and an enumeration of these will indicate the character of the appliances which were thus brought into prominence in the latter years of the 19th and the early years of the 10th century.
In 1893, at Chester, self-binding harvesters and sheep-shearing machines (power) were the appliances respectively in competition.
Dictyna may be cited as an example of a group of spiders, sometimes called the Cribellata, which have certain spinning glands and appliances not possessed by others.
From the brain these spirits are conveyed through the body by means of the nerves, regarded by Descartes as tubular vessels, resembling the pipes conveying the water of a spring to act upon the mechanical appliances in an artificial fountain.
Machines used for lifting only are not called cranes, but winches, lifts or hoists, while the term elevator or conveyor is commonly given to appliances which continuously, not in separate loads, move materials like grain or coal in a vertical, horizontal or diagonal direction.
We now consider the more recent appliances for electric wave telegraphy under the two divisions of transmitting and receiving apparatus.
The appliances in the Poldhu station were subsequently enlarged and improved by Marconi, and corresponding power stations erected at Cape Cod, Massachusetts, U.S.A., and at Cape Breton in Nova Scotia.
In addition to the appliances mentioned the tools comprise reamers to enlarge the bore of the well, the winged-substitute which is fitted above the bit to prevent it from glancing off, and above the round reamer to keep it in place, a temper-screw with clamps and wrenches.
In readiness for a fracture of the drilling tools or of the cable, special appliances known as fishing tools are provided.
The drilling of wells of large size requires the use of heavy tools and of very strong appliances generally.
A form of the rod system is used in the Russian oil-fields, but owing to the large diameter of the wells the appliances differ from those employed elsewhere.
(I) Accurate weighing is all-important; for details of the various appliances and methods see Weighing Machines.
The arsenal of Vienna was ransacked for guns, stores and appliances, and preparations in the island pushed on as fast as possible.
The chief features of the museum are collections of the fossils, birds and flora of Wales and of obsolete Welsh domestic appliances, casts of the pre-Norman monuments of Wales, and reproductions of metal and ivory work illustrating various periods of art and civilization.
It is the nature of " universals " which forms the sa To form a proper estimate of the first stage of Scholastic discussion it is requisite above all things to have a clear idea of the appliances then at the disposal of the writers.
The alluvial extracted, which in the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago carries from 5 to 60 lb of tinstone (or "black tin," as it is termed by Cornish miners) to the cubic yard of gravel, is washed in various simple sluicing appliances, by which the lighter clay, sand and stones are removed and tinstone is left behind comparatively pure, containing usually 65 to 75% of metallic tin (chemically pure tinstone contains 78.7%).
This can be done in inclined deposits, it can often be done by the aid of mechanical appliances, though sometimes at an expense not warranted in the saving in the labour of loading.
Furthermore, with the large furnaces which gas-firing makes possible mechanical appliances may be substituted for manual labour in many operations, such as removing and replacing broken retorts, mixing and conveying the charge, drawing and casting the metal, charging and emptying the retorts, and removing the residues and products.
The addition of optical appliances to the simple dark chamber for the purpose of seeing what was going on outside, was first described by Girolamo Cardan in his De Subtilitate (1 550), as noted by Libri.
- In the early days of goldwashing in California and Australia, when rich alluvial deposits were common at the surface, the most simple appliances sufficed.
The drawing or winding of the coal from the pit bottom to the surface is one of the most important operations in coal mining, and probably the department in which winding mechanical appliances have been brought to the highest state of development.
Per minute under such conditions, and the number of working places would thus be restricted, and consequently the output reduced to about 500 tons per shift of Io hours, which could be raised by a single engine at the surface without requiring any very different appliances from those in current use.
Are to be found here and there in both continents, and nuggets were objects of worship. Tools and appliances for working metals were of the rudest kind, and if moulds for casting were employed these were broken up; at least no museum contains samples of them, and the processes are not described.
SIGHTS, the name for mechanical appliances for directing the axis of the bore of a gun or other firearm on a point whose position relative to the target fired at is such that the projectile will strike the target.
(4) Some types of bridge can be built out from the abutments, the completed part forming an erecting stage on which lifting appliances are fixed.
Scientific and practical questions connected with the possibility of laying an Atlantic submarine cable then began to be discussed, and Lord Kelvin was foremost in developing true scientific knowledge on this subject, and in the invention of appliances for utilizing it.
The city has various manufactures, including fire-arms, calendar clocks, traction engines, electrical appliances, patent chains, incubators, autophones, artesian well drills, salt, cement, window glass and wallpaper.
Deal with the damage sustained by the ship, or her appliances, in efforts to force her off the ground when she has stranded.
His fortunes, however, were not thereby seriously affected, for by this time his business capacity and organizing skill had enabled him to consolidate his position, in spite of the difficulties he had encountered not only from rival manufacturers but also from the working classes, who in 1779 displayed their antipathy to labour-saving appliances by destroying a large Trill he had erected near Chorley.
Over the sill at high water of spring tides; the construction of new jetties at the entrance to the tidal basin and at the north wall; the establishment of a coal wharf with hydraulic appliances; a torpedo range in the harbour; the erection of various buildings such as torpedo and gun-mounting stores, electrical shops and numerous subsidiary works; and extensive dredging of the harbour to increase the berthing accommodation for the fleet.
The reefs were left untouched till 1897, when an American company, which had obtained a concession in Phyong-an Do in 1895, introduced the latest mining appliances, and raised the declared export of 1898 to 240,047 pounds, believed to represent a yield for that year of 600,000 pounds.
When a telescope is employed this number is enormously increased, and still more so with the introduction of photographic methods; with modern appliances more than a hundred million of these objects may be rendered perceptible.
Indeed, in its practical form the principle of the instrument has remained unchanged from the time of the Dollonds to the present day; and the history of its development may be summed up as consisting not in new optical discoveries but in utilizing new appliances for figuring and polishing, improved material for specula and lenses, more refined means of testing, and more perfect and convenient methods of mounting.
But if it be possible to mount a fixed telescope by which a solar or stellar image can be formed within a laboratory we give the following advantages: - (1) There is no mechanical limit to the length of the telescope; (2) the clockwork and other appliances to move the mirror, which reflects the starlight along the axis, are much lighter and smaller than those required to move a large telescope; (3) the observer remains in a fixed position, and spectroscopes of any weight can be used on piers within the laboratory; and (4) the angular value of any linear distance on a photographic plate can be determined by direct measurement of the distance of the photographic plate from the optical centre of the object-glass.
Although cultivated with most primitive appliances, and with little or no attempt at irrigation or artificial fertilization, the average yield is eightto twelve-fold annually.
Many of the most important improvements in the construction of ships, especially steam vessels, are due to the enterprise and skill of the Clyde shipbuilders, who, from the time of Robert Napier of Shandon (1791-1876), who built and engined the first steamers for the Cunard Company, formed in 1840, have enjoyed an unrivalled reputation for the construction of leviathan liners, both as regards mechanical appliances and the beauty and convenience of the internal arrangements.