The apothecaries' ordinance at Nuremberg provided that no Theriaca should in future be branded with the seal of the city unless it had been previously examined and declared worthy of the same by the doctors of medicine, and that every druggist must know the age of the Theriaca he sold.
The drugs used by the physicians and apothecaries were purchased from the grossarii or sellers in gross, who were subsequently called 'grocers, some of whom specialized as druggists and others as chymists or chemists.
The apothecaries, who were the pharmacists of those days, were not represented by any corporate body, but in the reign of King James I., in 1606, were incorporated with the Company of Grocers.
This arrangement was not, however, approved of by the physicians, who obtained in 1617 a separate charter for the apothecaries, to the number of 114, which was the number of physicians then practising in London.
At the same time it was enacted that no grocer should keep an apothecary's shop, and that no surgeon should sell medicines, and that the physicians should have the power to search the shops of the apothecaries within 7 m.
Soon after the apothecaries were formed into a separate company they took into consideration means to prevent the frauds and adulterations practised by the grocers and druggists, and, to remedy the evil, established a manufactory of their own in 1626 so that they might make preparations for their own members.
The frauds and adulterations were probably due in part to the apothecaries, for Dr Merrit, a collegiate physician of London, stated that " such chymists which sell preparations honestly made complain that few apothecaries will go to the price of them."
In 1694 the apothecaries had increased from 114 to nearly 1000, and many of them, having acquired a knowledge of the uses of medicine, began to prescribe medicines for their customers and to assume the functions of the physician, who retorted in 1697 by establishing dispensaries, where medicines could be procured at their intrinsic value, or at cost price.
In 1748 the Apothecaries' Corporation obtained a charter empowering them to license apothecaries to sell medicines in London, or within 7 m., and intended to use it to restrain chemists and druggists from practising pharmacy, and to prohibit physicians and surgeons from selling the medicines they prescribed; but the apothecaries, by paying increased attention to medical and surgical practice, had not only alienated the physicians and surgeons, but materially strengthened the position of chemists and druggists as dispensers of prescriptions.
When a further attempt was made in 1815 to bring a bill into parliament including provisions for prohibiting the practice of pharmacy by uneducated persons, and giving power to examine dispensing chemists, the latter became alarmed, and, finding that the provisions of the bill were entirely in the interests of the apothecaries, and directed against chemists and druggists, the latter took measures to oppose it in parliament, which were so far successful as to prevent apothecaries from interfering in' any way with, or obtaining any control over, chemists and druggists.
They produced the first pharmacopoeia, and established the first apothecaries' shops.
The Society of Apothecaries is in Water Lane, City.
Apothecaries may secure a licence to sell liquors for purely medicinal purposes upon a petition signed by twentyfive reputable free-holders and twenty-five reputable women.
In former times large quantities of it were imported in a dry state into Europe for officinal purposes, the drug having the reputation of being efficacious in diseases of the skin and lungs; and even now it may be found in apothecaries' shops in the south of Europe, country people regarding it as a powerful aphrodisiac for cattle.
Troy or apothecaries' weight, +0.2 grain is allowed; on 1 pint pot, 4 fluid drachms is permitted; on 1 brass yard, 0.05 inch in excess or 0.02 inch in deficiency in length is allowed for ordinary trade purposes.
SCRUPLE, a term used in the two senses of (I) perplexity, doubt, reluctance or hesitation, especially the moral doubt arising from the difficulties of conscience; (2) a unit of weight, -24part of the ounce in apothecaries' weight, =1 of a dram, 20 grains (1.296 grammes).
The earth is sold by apothecaries in stamped cubical blocks.
The botanist Jungermann had plant houses at Altdorf in Switzerland; those of Loader, a London merchant, and the conservatory in the Apothecaries' Botanic Garden at Chelsea, were among the first structures of the kind erected in British gardens.
For the education of medical practitioners, civil and military, the more important institutions are the National Obstetrical College at Amsterdam, the National Veterinary School at Utrecht, the National College for Military Physicians at Amsterdam and the establishment at Utrecht for the training of military apothecaries for the East and West Indies.
Moreover, he had a pharmaceutical system of his own which did not harmonize with the commercial arrangements of the apothecaries, and he not only did not use up their drugs like the Galenists, but, in the exercise of his functions as town physician, he urged the authorities to keep a sharp eye on the purity of their wares, upon their knowledge of their art, and upon their transactions with their friends the physicians.
Others maintain that he was thrown down a steep place by some emissaries either of the physicians or of the apothecaries, both of whom he had during his life most grievously harassed.
Among his other acts of munificence may be mentioned his gift to the Apothecaries' Company of the botanical or physic garden, which they had rented from the Chelsea estate since 1673.
In 1812 he was appointed professor of chemistry to the Apothecaries' Society, and delivered a course of lectures before the Board of Agriculture in place of Sir Humphry Davy, whom in the following year he succeeded in the chair of chemistry at the Royal Institution, London.
It was Sloane who gave to the Apothecaries' Company the ground which they had leased in 1673 for the Physick Garden, which is still extant, but ceased in 1902 to be maintained by the Company.
London University, the Royal Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, and many other examining bodies refused to admit her to their examinations; but in the end the Society of Apothecaries, London, allowed her to enter for the License of Apothecaries' Hall, which she obtained in 1865.