The first decree (Decretum de fide et ecclesia) declared that the Catholic Church has no right to introduce new dogmas, but only to preserve in its original purity the faith once delivered by Christ to His apostles, and is infallible only so far as it conforms to Holy Scripture and true tradition; the Church, moreover is a purely spiritual body and has no authority in things secular.
" What ever was perfect under the sun," ask the translators of the Authorized Version (1611) in their preface, " where apostles and apostolick men, that is, men endued with an extraordinary measure of God's Spirit, and privileged with the privilege of infallibility, had not their hand?"
In addition to the encyclical letter, nineteen resolutions were put forth, and the reports of twelve special committees are appended upon which they are based, the subjects being intemperance, purity, divorce, polygamy, observance of Sunday, socialism, care of emigrants, mutual relations of dioceses of the Anglican Communion, home reunion, Scandinavian Church, Old Catholics, &c., Eastern Churches, standards of doctrine and worship. Perhaps the most important of these is the famous "Lambeth Quadrilateral," which laid down a fourfold basis for home reunion - the Holy Scriptures, the Apostles' and Nicene creeds, the two sacraments ordained by Christ himself and the historic episcopate.
With the sanction and under the guidance of the Apostles, officers called elders and deacons were appointed in every newly-formed church.'
When an apostle was about to be chosen as successor to Judas, the people were invited to take part in the election;"and when deacons were about to be appointed the Apostles asked the people to make the choice.
13 The elders thus chosen by the people and inducted to their office by the Apostles acted as a church court.
Church polity is apostolic Presbyterians are accustomed to appeal to the New Testament and to the time when the apostles were still living; and for proof of the apostolicity of prelacy Episcopalians appeal rather to the early Church fathers and to a time when the last of the Apostles had just passed away.'
They were unanimous in regarding ministerial service as mainly pastoral; preaching, administering the sacraments and visiting from house to house; and, further, in perceiving that Christian ministers must be also spiritual rulers, not in virtue of any magical influence transmitted from the Apostles, but in virtue of their election by the Church and of their appointment in the name of the Lord Jesus.
The two works on which his reputation principally rests are the A postolici, or History of Apostles and Fathers in the first three centuries of the Church (1677), and Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Historia Literaria (1688).
After the time of the Apostles, we find this criminal jurisdiction exercised by the bishops individually over their respective " subjects " - doubtless with the advice of their presbyters according to the precept of St Ignatius (c. i io).
Sees traditionally founded by Apostles, or of sees with a special secular position.
By the "fathers," then, we understand the whole of extant Christian literature from the time of the apostles to the rise of scholasticism or the beginning of the middle ages.
Their writings, like those of the apostles, are epistolary; but editions of the apostolic fathers now usually admit also the early Church order known as the Didache, the allegory entitled the Shepherd, and a short anonymous apology addressed to one Diognetus.
The western side of Table Mountain faces the Atlantic, and is flanked by the hills known as The Twelve Apostles; to the south Hout's Bay Nek connects it with the remainder of the range; on the east the mountain overlooks the Cape Flats.
They taught the Apostles' Creed, rejected Purgatory, the worship of saints and the authority of the Catholic Church, practised infant baptism and confirmation, held a view on the Sacrament similar to that of Zwingli, and, differing somewhat from Luther in their doctrine of justification by faith, declared that true faith was "to know God, to love Him, to do His commandments, and to submit to His will."
(3) It was offered as a thanksgiving partly for creation and preservation and partly for redemption: the latter is the special purpose mentioned (e.g.) in the Teaching of the Twelve Apostles; the former is that upon which Irenaeus chiefly dwells; both are mentioned together in Justin Martyr (Trypho, c. 41).
X., and the prayer is nearly the same as that which the teaching of the Apostles assigns for the eucharistic rite.
Horner, The Statutes of the Apostles, translated from Ethiopic and Arabic MSS.
In its original sense the chief uses are such as "the quick and the dead," of the Apostles' Creed, a "quickset" hedge, i.e.
22) states, with perfect truth, that neither the Lord nor his apostles enjoined the keeping of this or any other festival.
There is no suggestion of the popular idea that the mitre symbolizes the " tongues of fire " that descended on the heads of the apostles at Pentecost.
His sources for the teachings of Jesus are the "Memoirs of the Apostles," by which are probably to be understood the Synoptic Gospels (without the Gospel according to St John), which, according to his account, were read along with the prophetic writings at the public services.
In diameter, and by a dome over each of the arms. The plan is derived from the Church of the Holy Apostles at Constantinople, now covered by the mosque of Mahommed II., and bears a strong resemblance to the plan of St Front at Perigueux in France (I 120).
With this idea went the notions that Christianity had been diffused throughout the whole earth by the apostles, and that only what was found everywhere throughout the church could be true.
At Berlin, somewhat against his will, he was drawn into a controversy on the Apostles' Creed, in which the party antagonisms within the Prussian Church had found expression.
II, instead of Paul's usual term "Satan"); "his holy apostles and prophets" (iii.
Briggs, The Messiah of the Apostles, p. 284 seq.; Sabatier, Les Origines litteraires et la composition de l'Apocalypse de St Jean (1887); Spitta, Die Offenbarung des Johannes untersucht (1889).
1800, hanged 1859), all of whom were in their several ways leading apostles or promoters of the cause.
Of B2eda, commonly called "the Venerable Bede," almost all that we know is contained in the short autobiographical notice which he has appended to his Ecclesiastical History: - " Thus much concerning the ecclesiastical history of Britain, and especially of the race of the English, I, Ba da, a servant of Christ and priest of the monastery of the blessed apostles St Peter and St Paul, which is at Wearmouth and at Jarrow, have with the Lord's help composed, so far as I could gather it, either from ancient documents, or from the tradition of the elders, or from my own knowledge.
Similarly, the teaching of Christ and the Apostles on the sacraments is considered, implicitly and explicitly, as transitory, as representing that passage from the significantia to the significata which Joachim signalizes at every stage of his demonstration.
Like John the Baptist and the Apostles of Jesus, Zoroaster also believed that the fulness of time was near, that the kingdom of heaven was at hand.
In the district that bore this designation, lying close to the Appian Way, the basilica of San Sebastiano was erected, and the extensive burial-vaults beneath that church - in which, according to tradition, the bodies of the apostles St Peter and St Paul rested for a year and seven months previous to their removal to the basilicas which bear their names - were, in very early times, called from it coemeterium ad catacumbas, or catacumbas alone.
" When I was a boy," he writes, " receiving my education in Rome, I and my schoolfellows used, on Sundays, to make the circuit of the sepulchres of the apostles and martyrs.
These were unknown to Bosio, and are both covered with frescoes, the vault being in one case decorated with the scene which represents Christ seated among the apostles and pronouncing sentence upon the defunct.
The abbey church of St Pierre, dating chiefly from the 1 3 th century, contains, besides some fine stained glass, twelve representations of the apostles in enamel, executed about 1 547 by Leonard Limosin.
The Jew and the heathen had the gospel preached to them in the world below by Christ and his apostles, and Christians will have to pass through processes of purification and trial after death before they reach knowledge and perfect bliss.
Festival of the instruments of the Passion, of the Precious Blood, of the invention and elevation of the Cross; all festivals of apostles, except those above noted; festivals of martyrs; masses for a papal election; the Feast of the Holy Innocents, when it falls on a Sunday (violet if on a week-day), and its octave (always red).
The secular power over riches and worldly goods which the clergy possesses in contradiction to Christ's precept, to the prejudice of its office and to the detriment of the secular arm, shall be taken and withdrawn from it, and the clergy itself shall be brought back to the evangelical rule and an apostolic life such as that which Christ and his apostles led...
(b) Acts and Teachings of the Apostles Acts of Andrew and later forms of these Acts.
(b) Acts And Teachings Of The Apostles.-Aces of Andrew.
118 -177) and to the " Acts of the holy apostles Peter and Paul " (A cta A postol.
Apokryphen, 473-480.) Teaching of the Twelve Apostles (Didache).
- For the various collections of these ecclesiastical regulations - the Syriac Didascalia, Ecclesiastical Canons of the Holy Apostles, &c. - see separate article.
Bell, Lives and Legends of the Evangelists, Apostles and other early Saints (London, 1901), pp. 238-240.
" God," he says, " hath set some in the church, first apostles, secondly prophets, thirdly teachers, then miracles, then gifts of healing, helps, governments, (divers) kinds of tongues."
It died out very gradually, and the Didache or Teaching of the Apostles, compiled probably between A.D.
To relieve the apostles in the administration of alms (Acts vi.) is a question still disputed and uncertain.
Cap. 2) only seven orders, and yet maintains (cap. 4) the ecclesiastical hierarchy of bishops, priests and ministers, the bishops as successors of the Apostles holding the highest place.
According to this, Christ committed to his apostles certain powers of order and jurisdiction in the Church, among others that of transmitting these powers to others through "the laying on of hands"; and this power, whatever obscurity may surround the practice of the primitive Church (see Apostle, ad fin.) was very early confined to the order of bishops, who by virtue of a special consecration became the successors of the apostles in the function of handing on the powers and graces of the ministry.'
A valid episcopate, then, is one derived in an unbroken series of "layings on of hands" by bishops from the time of the apostles (see Holy Order).