Lydgate's most doughty and learned apologist is Dr Schick, whose preface to the Temple of Glass embodies practically all that is known or conjectured concerning this author, including the chronological order of his works.
Fichte, in short, advocates an ethical theism, and his arguments might easily be turned to account by the apologist of Christianity.
Another French Roman Catholic apologist, P. D.
More visible dangers arise for the apologist in the region of science, historical or physical.
The modern apologist must do ephemeral work - unless it should chance that he proves to be the skirmisher, pioneering for a modified dogmatic. He holds a watching brief.
But hereafter it may not prove possible for the apologist to assume as unchallenged the Christian moral outlook.
Here the apologist has more to say.
The Christian apologist indeed may himself seek, following John Fiske, to philosophize evolution as a restatement of natural theology - " one God, one law, one element and one far-off divine event " - and as at least pointing towards personal immortality.
The apologist must maintain (I) that Jesus of Nazareth is a real historical figure - a point well-nigh overlooked by Strauss, and denied by some modern advocates of a mythical theory; (2) that Jesus is knowable (not one " of whom we really know very little " - B.
Some practically stop here; the apologist proceeds.
Finally the city of London - not only as the converted champion of religious liberty but as the convinced apologist of the Jews - sent Baron Lionel de Rothschild to knock at the door of the unconverted House of Commons as parliamentary representative of the first city in the world " (Wolf, loc. cit.).
It must not, however, be forgotten that Justin is here speaking as the apologist of Christianity to an educated Pagan public, on whose philosophical view of life he had to base his arguments, and from whom he could not expect an intimate comprehension of the religious position of Christians.
Barclay (not the " Apologist "); the best account is given in a pamphlet entitled Micah's Mother by John S.
The Inner Life of the Religious Societies of the Commonwealth (London, 1876) by Robert Barclay, a descendant of the Apologist, contains much curious information about the Quakers.
He published some 200 sermons, in most of which are displayed unobtrusive learning, fresh application of old sayings, and a high conception of Judaism and its claims. Jellinek was a powerful apologist and an accomplished homilist, at once profound and ingenious.
As his share in the controversy, Martineau published five discourses, in which he discussed " the Bible as the great autobiography of human nature from its infancy to its perfection," " the Deity of Christ," " Vicarious Redemption," " Evil," and " Christianity without Priest and without Ritual."' He remained to the end a keen and vigilant apologist of the school in which he had been nursed.
Of these it is enough to name John Cotton, able both as a divine and as a statesman, potent in England by his expositions and apologies of the " New England way," potent in America for his organizing and administrative power; Thomas Hooker, famed as an exponent and apologist of the " New England way "; John Eliot, famous as the " apostle of the Indians," first of Protestant missionaries to the heathen; Richard Mather, whose influence and work were carried on by his distinguished son, and his still more distinguished grandson, Cotton Mather.
The letter was condemned by the Inquisitions of Spain and Portugal; and it tasked all the skill and learning of Bellarmine as its apologist, together with the whole influence of the Society, to avert what seemed to be a probable condemnation at Rome.
He now constituted himself the literary apologist of the Elizabethan settlement.
He became its theologian, its apologist, its statesman and corrector, through sixty long years of incessant labour.
During the second half of this missionary period of his life he superintended as bisho p the churches of Pennsylvania, defended the Moravian colonies against the Indians at the time of war between France and England, became the apologist of his body against the attacks of the Lutherans and the Pietists, and did much to moderate the mystical extravagances pf Zinzendorf, with which his simple, practical and healthy nature was out of sympathy.
ATHENAGORAS, a Christian apologist of the 2nd century A.D., was, according to an emendator of the Paris Codex 451 of the 1 i th century, a native of Athens.
He has been represented as a determined apologist of intellectual orthodoxy animated by an almost fanatical "hatred of reason," and possessed with a purpose to overthrow the appeal to reason; as a sceptic and pessimist of a far deeper dye than Montaigne, anxious chiefly to show how any positive decision on matters beyond the range of experience is impossible; as a nervous believer clinging to conclusions which his clearer and better sense showed to be indefensible; as an almost ferocious ascetic and paradoxer affecting the credo quia impossibile in intellectual matters and the odi quia amabile in matters moral and sensuous; as a wanderer in the regions of doubt and belief, alternately bringing a vast though vague power of thought and an unequalled power of expression to the expression of ideas incompatible and irreconcilable.
There are five chief editions of the true Pensees earlier than Brunschvig's: that of Faugere (1844), the editio princeps; that of Havet (1852, 1867 and 1881), on the whole the best; that of Victor Rochet (1873), good, but arranged and edited with the deliberate intention of making Pascal first of all an orthodox apologist; that of Molinier (1877-1879), a carefully edited and interesting text, the important corrections of which have been introduced into Havet's last edition and that of G.
His great treatise, in seven books, Adversus Gentes (or Nationes), on account of which he takes rank as a Christian apologist, appears to have been occasioned by a desire to answer the complaint then brought against the Christians, that the prevalent calamities and disasters were due to their impiety and had come upon men since the establishment of their religion.
Even van Oordt, his eloquent historian and apologist, is cognisant of this fact.
The subsequent history of the bank left it without an apologist, and prejudiced the whole later judgment about it.
Another work, which was soon translated into all the principal European languages, Die wahre Weihe des Zweiflers (1823; 9th ed., with the title Die Lehre von der Siinde and dem Versohner, 1870), the outcome of his own religious history, procured for him the position which he ever after held of the modern Pietistic apologist of Evangelical Christianity.
By these successes he gained the patronage of the Fuggers, and found himself fairly launched as the recognized apologist of the established order in church and state.
Whether Pope had really understood the tendency of his own work has always been doubtful, but there is no question that he was glad of an apologist, and that Warburton's jeu d'esprit in the long run did more for his fortunes than all his erudition.
Lightfoot (very strong as an apologist in scholarship; not strong in pure thinking); the polemic becomes altogether conciliatory in those other glories of 19th-century Cambridge, B.
GREGORIUS PALAMAS (c. 1 2 96-1359), Greek mystic and chief apologist of the Hesychasts, belonged to a distinguished Anatolian family, and his father held an important position at Constantinople.