In spite of some waverings towards what has lately been called " conditional immortality " (see Apologetics) the doctrine of " natural immortality " championed by Augustine became dominant in the church; an instalment of what was afterwards to be called Natural Theology; and a postulate or presupposition to-day - like free will - in Roman Catholic apologetics.
Of the Analogy tries similarly to establish Christianity as credible matter of fact, sufficiently analogous to known facts of experience (Apologetics) apart from any moral " value judgments " (as Ritschlians might say).
In a sense (see Apologetics) this was done in the middle ages, and possibly repeated by Pascal after the Reformation.
1508) wrote commentaries (not of the first rank) on the Pentateuch and Prophets and on the Moreh, philosophical treatises and apologetics, such as the Yeshu`oth Meshiho, all of which had considerable influence.
APOLOGETICS, in theology, the systematic statement of the grounds which Christians allege for belief in (at least) a supernatural revelation and a divine redemption (cf.
Catholic apologetics must further give a central position to Church authority, which Roman Catholics explicitly define as infallible; but this position too is debated in a late section of their system.
Any single effort in apologetics may be termed " an apology."
Bruce's Apologetics; or Christianity Defensively Stated (1892).
And there is perhaps a reason of a deeper kind for holding Apologetics to the defensive.
If so, apologetics is literally a science, and it is pedantry to claim the defensive and pretend to throw the onus probandi upon objectors.
But, if not, then apologetics is a mere auxiliary, and is only " a science" in so far as it presents a conscious and systematic plea.
But the introduction of the adjective " apologetic " and of the substantive " apologetics " is recent.
Apologetics in the Bible.
When we leave the New Testament, apologetics becomes conspicuous until the political triumph of Christianity, and even somewhat later.
The earlier apologists dispute the natural immortality of the soul; Athanasius himself, in De Incarnatione Dei, §§ 4, 5, tones down the teaching of Wisdom; and the somewhat eccentric writer Arnobius, a layman - from Justin Martyr downwards apologetics has always been largely in the hands of laymen - stands for what has recently been called " conditional immortality " - eternal life for the righteous, the children of God, alone.
- From the point of view of apologetics, we may mass together the long stretch of history which covers the period between the disappearance and the re-appearance of free discussion.
Many of the principal medieval attempts in apologetics are directed chiefly against him, e.g.
- It will be seen that apologetics by no means reissued unchanged from the long period of authority.
Huet (1630-1721) - within the conditions of his age a prodigy of learning (in apologetics see his Demonstratio Evangelica) - is not uninfluenced by Pascal (Traite de la faiblesse de l'esprit humaine).
If Socinianism had challenged natural theology - Christ, according to it, was the prophet who first revealed the way to eternal life - it had glorified the natural powers of man; and the learning of the Arminian divines (friends of Grotius and Locke) had helped to modernize Christian apologetics upon rational lines.
British and American divines, on the other hand, are slow to suspect that a new apologetic principle may mean a new system of apologetics, to say nothing of a new dogmatic. Among the evangelicals, for the most part, natural theology, far from being rejected, is not even modified, and certain doctrines continue to be described as incomprehensible mysteries.
Apologetics and Philosophy.
Apologetics and History.
(3) Apologists maintain that Jesus " claimed " Messiahship. There are speculative constructions of gospel history which eliminate that claim; and no doubt apologetics could - with more or less difficulty - restate its position in a changed form if the paradox of to-day became accepted as historical fact to-morrow.
Bruce, Chief End of Revelation (1881), The Miraculous Element in the Gospels (1886), Apologetics (1892), and other works; Bruce's posthumous article, " Jesus " in Encyc. Bib., was understood by some as exchanging Christian orthodoxy for bare theism, but probably its tone of aloofness is due to the attempt to keep well within the limits of what the author considered pure scientific history.
Roman Catholic apologetics - of necessity, Thomist - is well represented by Professor Schanz of Tubingen.
The writings of Origen consist of letters, and of works in textual criticism, exegesis, apologetics, dogmatic and practical theology.
The Church as a whole took but little interest in apologetics and polemics, nay, had at times even an instinctive feeling that in these controversies that which she held holy might easily suffer loss.
In reply to Rudolf Hospinian's Concordia discors (1607), he wrote a work, rich in historical material but one-sided in its apologetics, Concordia concors (1614), defending the formula of Concord, which he regarded as inspired.
The earliest work of Christian apologetics is the Octavius or Minucius Felix, a contemporary of Fronto.
But, generally speaking, there was no heart in preaching, sermons were unimpassioned, stilted and formal presentations of ethics and apologetics, seldom delivered extempore.
Michaelis Villanovani in quendam medicum apologetics disceptatio pro astrologia (Paris, 1538; reprinted, Berlin, 1880); the medicus is Jean Tagault, who interrupted Servetus's lectures on astronomy, including meteorology.
In May 1876, he was appointed joint professor of systematic theology and apologetics with James Harper, principal of the United Presbyterian Theological College, whom he succeeded as principal in 1879.
Hippolytus's voluminous writings, which for variety of subject can be compared with those of Origen, embrace the spheres of exegesis, homiletics, apologetics and polemic, chronography and ecclesiastical law.
In apologetics his principal master was Justin, and in theology proper and in the controversy with the Gnostics, Irenaeus.
In 1874 he delivered his Cunningham Lectures, afterwards published as The Humiliation of Christ, and in the following year was appointed to the chair of Apologetics and New Testament exegesis at the Free Church College, Glasgow.
C. Baur and his Theory of the Origin of Christianity and of the New Testament Writings in "Present Day Tracts" (Loud., 1885); Apologetics, or Christianity Defensively Stated (Edin., 1892); St Paul's Conception of Christianity (Lond., 1894); Expos.
It became the classical manual of apologetics in Protestant colleges, and was translated for missionary purposes into Arabic (by Pococke, 1660), Persian, Chinese, &c. His Via et votum ad pacem ecclesiasticam (1642) was a detailed proposal of a scheme of accommodation.
(3) German 18th-century rationalism (see Apologetics) held that the Biblical writers made great use of conscious accommodation - intending moral commonplaces when they seemed to be enunciating Christian dogmas.
At St Andrews, where he held also the post of professor of systematic theology and apologetics, his work as a teacher was distinguished by several features which at that time were new.
The Principles was followed in 1790 by his first essay in the field of Christian apologetics, Horae Paulinae, or the Truth of the Scripture History of St Paul evinced by a Comparison of the Epistles which bear his Name with the Acts of the Apostles and with one another, probably the most original of its author's works.
He lectured on the Old and New Testaments, theology, apologetics and the history of the church in the 18th century.
Apart from apologetics or single doctrines like that of the Atonement, the task of rethinking Christian theology upon the great scale has been left chiefly to German science, philosophical and historical.
It should also be noted that Schleiermacher's place for Apologetics is by no means undisputed.
1857) is a landmark in Apologetics and Church history.
Bruce's Apologetics, and the present writer's Essay towards a New Theology.
This way of solving, or passing over, the ultimate problems of thought has had many followers in cultured circles imbued with the new physical science of the day, and with disgust for the dogmatic creeds of contemporary orthodoxy; and its outspoken and even aggressive vindication by physicists of the eminence of Huxley had a potent influence upon the attitude taken towards metaphysics, and upon the form which subsequent Christian apologetics adopted.
Bruce feels this so strongly that the natural theology section of his Apologetics entirely omits the question " Does God exist?"