St Jerome attributes to Victor some opuscula in Latin, which are believed to be recognized in certain apocryphal treatises of St Cyprian.
It is very probable that the versions of this letter which we possess, and which are to be found only in later writings like Guibert de Nogent, are apocryphal; Alexius can hardly have held out the bait of the beauty of Greek women, or have written that he preferred to fall under the yoke of the Latins rather than that of the Turks.
But it is also probable that these apocryphal versions are based on a genuine original.
It seems to have soon passed out of use as a precise geographical designation; for though occasionally mentioned by Apocryphal writers, by Josephus, and by Eusebius, the allusions are all vague, and show that those who made them had no definite knowledge of Gilead proper.
Old Testament), are an important constituent of the apocryphal scriptures connected with the Old Testament, comprising the dying commands of the twelve sons of Jacob.
Liber sapientiae), an apocryphal book of the "Wisdom Literature" (q.v.), the most brilliant production of pre-Christian Hebrew philosophical thought, remarkable both for the elevation of its ideas and for the splendour of its diction.
WISDOM LITERATURE, the name applied to the body of Old Testament and Apocryphal writings that contain the philosophical thought of the later pre-Christian Judaism.
It was a short commentary on all the books of Scripture, including some of the apocryphal works, such as the Epistle of Barnabas and the Revelation of Peter.
Various legends are connected with him, of which the best known is given in the Apocryphal story of "Bel and the Dragon" (v.
We shall therefore enter at once on a short account of the origin of this literature in Judaism, of its adoption by early Christianity, of the various meanings which the term " apocryphal " assumed in the course of its history, and having so done we shall proceed to classify and deal with the books that belong to this literature.
Such esoteric books are apocryphal in the original conception of the term.
Thus though it insisted on the exclusive canonicity of the 24 books, it claimed the possession of are oral law handed down from ivloses, and just as the apocryphal books overshadowed in certain instances the canonical scriptures, so often the oral law displaced the written in the regard of Judaism.
1 In Aqiba's time Sirach and other apocryphal books were not reckoned among the Hisonim; for Sirach was largely quoted by rabbis in Palestine till the 3rd century A.D.
Now the current religious literature of Judaism outside the canon was composed of apocryphal books, the bulk of which bore an apocalyptic character, and dealt with the coming of the Messianic kingdom.
Another prolific source of apocryphal gospels, acts and apocalypses was Gnosticism.
With them, as with the bulk of the Christians of the 1st and 2nd centuries, apocryphal books as such were highly esteemed.
But the high position which apocryphal books occupied in the first two centuries was undermined by a variety of influences.
22-27): true inspiration was limited to the apostolic age, and universal acceptance by the church was required as a proof of apostolic authorship. Under the action of such principles apocryphal books tended to pass into the class of spurious and heretical writings.
Turning now to the consideration of the word " apocryphal " itself, we find that in its earliest use it was applied in a laudatory sense to writings, (I) which were kept secret because they were the vehicles of esoteric knowledge which was too profound or too sacred to be imparted to any save the initiated.
Thus Origen distinguishes between writings which were read by the churches and apocryphal writings: ypai?j q5Ep0,LLiv77 /2 V iv Togs Kolvocs KaL 6E6771.400-LEvybiotS (3L XLocs EIKOs S' On iv euroKpiiy50ts cbEpoµ4, 77 (Origen's Comm.
Thus the degree of estimation in which the apocryphal books have been held in the church has varied much according to place and time.
As they stood in the Septuagint or Greek canon, along 2 The New Testament shows undoubtedly an acquaintance with several of the apocryphal books.
Notwithstanding the decisions of some councils held in Africa, which were in favour of the view of Augustine, these diverse opinions regarding the apocryphal books continued to prevail in the church down through the ages till the great dogmatic era of the Reformation.
OLD Testament Apocryphal Books We shall now proceed to enumerate the apocryphal books: first the Apocrypha Proper, and next the rest of the Old and New Testament apocryphal literature.
Other Old Testament Apocryphal Literature: (a) Historical.
New Testament Apocryphal Literature: (a) Gospels: - Uncanonical sayings of the Lord in Christian and Jewish writings.
P. Grenfell, An Alexandrian erotic Fragment and other Papyri, 1896, pp. 13-17: for the Syriac, Wright, Contributions to Apocryphal Literature of the N.T., 1865, pp. 3-7; A.
It is used to designate an apocryphal writing entitled in the older MSS.
The more complete recension bears the title ew,ua 'IvpafXLTov I tXoaocov pr)Ta Eis Ta lrac&uca Tou Kvpiov, and treats of the period from the 7th to the 12th year (Tischendorf, Evangelia Apocryphal, 1876, 140-157).
(b) Apocryphal 3rd Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians and Epistle from the Corinthians to Paul.
The apocryphal Neoplatonic treatises and the First views of the Arabian commentators obscured for the effects of first students the genuine doctrine of Aristotle, and the the new 13th century opens with quite a crop of mystical knowledge.
13 Ta Tou Aavtt means the Psalter, and the title of the apocryphal " Psalter of Solomon " implies that the previously existing Psalter was ascribed to David.
And the Greek Psalter, though it contains one apocryphal psalm at the close, is essentially the same as the Hebrew; there is nothing to suggest that the Greek was first translated from a less complete Psalter and afterwards extended to agree with the extant Hebrew.
In the literature as it survives many different branches of writing are represented - homilies in prose and verse, hymns, exposition and commentary, liturgy, apocryphal legends, historical romance, hagiography and martyrology, monastic history and biography, general history, dogmatics, philosophy and science, ecclesiastical law, &c. But the whole is dominated by the theological and ecclesiastical interest.
When we put aside one or two exceptionally fine pieces, like the hymn of the soul in the apocryphal Acts of Thomas, the highest degree of excellence in style is perhaps attained in staightforward historical narrative - such as the account of the PersoRoman War at the beginning of the 6th century by the author who passes under the name of Joshua the Stylite, or by romancers like him who wrote the romance of Julian; by biographers like some of those who have written lives of saints, martyrs and eminent divines; and by some early writers of homilies such as Philoxenus (in prose) and Isaac of Antioch (in verse).
Of the large number of Apocryphal books existing in Syriac8 the majority have been translated from Greek, one or two (such as Bar Sira or Ecclesiasticus) from Hebrew, while some (like the Doctrine of Addai above referred to) are original Syriac documents.
11 Of the Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles there is the well-known edition and translation by Wright (London, 1871); the Acts of Judas were re-edited by Bedjan in the 3rd volume of Acta martyrum et sanctorum (Paris, 1892); of the Hymn of the Soul there is a fresh edition and translation by A.
Literature, 1884) thinks he aimed at correcting the apocryphal, and to modern ideas superstitious, teaching of the earlier Buckling Homilies.
Terence's earliest play was the Andria, exhibited in 166 B.C. A pretty, but perhaps apocryphal, story is told of his having read the play, before its exhibition, to Caecilius (who, after the death of Plautus, ranked as the foremost comic poet), and of the generous admiration of it manifested by Caecilius.
Followed immediately after Dynasty I.; Dynasty II., he suggested, had either synchronized with Dynasty I., or was mainly apocryphal (eine spatere Geschichtskonstruction).
This is the most important of all the apocryphal writings for the history of religious thought.
On the other hand, it is probably identical with the apocryphal book 'A(3paµ mentioned in the Stichometry of Nicephorus, and the Synopsis Athanasii, together with the Apocalypses of Enoch, &c.
Dulaurier published from a Parisian Sahidic MS., subjoining a French translation, what is termed a fragment of the apocryphal revelations of St Bartholomew (Fragment des revelations apocryphes de Saint Barthelemy, &c., Paris, 1835), and of the history of the religious communities founded by St Pachomius.
THE Epistle Of Barnabas is one of the apocryphal books of the New Testament.
See also APOCRYPHAL LITERATURE, section "New Testament."
The one exception is a prophetic writing, the apocryphal Book of Eldad and Modad, A careful study of practical Christian ethics at Rome as implied in the Shepherd, will be found in E.
An annual festival, with a procession of children, which is still held, is referred to an apocryphal siege of the town by the Hussites in 1432, but is probably connected with an incident in the brothers' war (1447-51), between the elector Frederick II.
47, 50 and 53; and it is the principal scene of the tale of Paul and Thecla (which though apocryphal has certainly some historical basis; see Thecla).
They possess - not in Hebrew, of which they are altogether ignorant, but in Ethiopic (or Geez)- the canonical and apocryphal books of the Old Testament; a volume of extracts from the Pentateuch, with comments given to Moses by God on Mount Sinai; the Te-e-sa-sa Sanbat, or laws of the Sabbath; the Ardit, a book of secrets revealed to twelve saints, which is used as a charm against disease; lives of Abraham, Moses, &c.; and a translation of Josephus called Sana Aihud.