The difficulty is increased by the fact that the geographical descriptions given in the Old Testament, the Apocrypha and the writings of Josephus are very short, and, having been written for those who were acquainted with the places, convey insufficient information to historians of the present day, when the sites are so greatly altered.
Among his later writings, besides numerous pamphlets on what was known as "the Apocrypha controversy," are a treatise On the Inspiration of Scripture (1828), which has passed through many editions, and a later Exposition of the Epistle to the Romans (1835), which has been frequently reprinted, and has been translated into French and German.
He edited the Aramaic translation (known as the Targum) of the Prophets according to the Codex Reuchlinianus preserved at Carlsruhe, Prophetae chaldaice (1872), the Hagiographa chaldaice (1874), an Arabic translation of the Gospels, Die vier Evangelien, arabisch aus der Wiener Handschrift herausgegeben (1864), a Syriac translation of the Old Testament Apocrypha, Libri V.
Other canons treat of intercourse with heretics, admission of penitent heretics, baptism, fasts, Lent, angel-worship (forbidden as idolatrous) and the canonical books, from which the Apocrypha and Revelation are wanting.
C. Tischendorf, Evangelia apocrypha (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1877), p. 239; E.
The history of the earlier usage of the term "Apocrypha" (from 6.7roxpb7rreev, to hide) is not free from obscurity.
Apocrypha in Christianity.
The eschatology of a nation - and the most influential portion of Jewish and Christian apocrypha are eschatological - is always the last part of their religion to experience the transforming power of new ideas and new facts.
We have remarked above that the Jewish apocrypha - especially the apocalyptic section and the host of Christian apocryphsbecame the ordinary religious literature of the early Christians.
The western church did not accept Jerome's definition of apocrypha, but retained the word in its original meaning, though great confusion prevailed.
Already Wycliffe had declared that " whatever book is in the Old Testament besides these twentyfive (Hebrew) shall be set among the apocrypha, that is, without authority or belief."
OLD Testament Apocryphal Books We shall now proceed to enumerate the apocryphal books: first the Apocrypha Proper, and next the rest of the Old and New Testament apocryphal literature.
The Apocrypha Proper, or the apocrypha of the Old Testament as used by English-speaking Protestants, consists of the following books: 1 Esdras, 2 Esdras, Tobit, Judith, Additions to Esther, Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, Epistle of Jeremy, Additions to Daniel (Song of the Three Holy Children, History of Susannah, and Bel and the Dragon), Prayer of Manasses, i Maccabees, 2 Maccabees.
Thus the Apocrypha Proper constitutes the surplusage of the Vulgate or Bible of the Roman Church over the Hebrew Old Testament.
The Apocrypha Proper then would be classified as follows: i.
C. Bissell, Apocrypha of the Old Testament (Edinburgh, 1880); Zickler, Apok.
(Munchen, 1891); Wace, The Apocrypha (" Speaker's Commentary ") (1888).
On internal grounds the section recounting Andrew's imprisonment (Bonnet, Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha, ii.
Apokryphen, in loc. The best texts are given in Bonnet's Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha, 1898, II.
The best critical edition of the Greek text will be found in Lipsius, Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha, 1891, pp. 279-283.
Among these may be mentioned his Brief Outline of the Evidences of the Christian Religion (1825), which passed through several editions, and,; was translated into various languages; The Canon of the Old and New Testament Ascertained; or the Bible Complete without the Apocrypha and Unwritten Traditions (1826); A History of the Israelitish Nation (1852), and Outlines of Moral Science (1852), the last two being published posthumously.
It is plainly Gnostic and may perhaps have been composed by Bardaisan or his son Harmonius.0 Among recent editions of Apocrypha in Syriac may be mentioned those of the Apocalypse of Baruch, the Epistle of Baruch, ' For the later Monophysite versions, none of which attained much popularity, see Wright's Syr.
James, Apocrypha Anecdota, ii.
- For legends see Tischendorf's Evangelia apocrypha (1863) and Apocryphal Gospels, Ante-Nicene Lib.
The result of all this labour was the Latin translation of the Scriptures which, in spite of much opposition from the more conservative party in the church, afterwards became the Vulgate or authorized version; but the Vulgate as we have it now is not exactly Jerome's Vulgate, for it suffered a good deal from changes made under the influence of the older translations; the text became very corrupt during the middle ages, and in particular all the Apocrypha, except Tobit and Judith, which Jerome translated from the Chaldee, were added from the older versions.
To him we owe the distinction between canonical and apocryphal writings; in the Prologus Galeatus prefixed to his version of Samuel and Kings, he says that the church reads the Apocrypha "for the edification of the people, not for confirming the authority of ecclesiastical doctrines."
This work was valuable for the use which its author made of the Greek of the Septuagint, of the Old and New Testament Apocrypha, of Josephus, and of the apostolic fathers, in illustration of the language of the New Testament.
Charles, Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha.
The different order of the books in the English Bible is due to the fact that when the Hebrew Bible was translated into Greek between the 3rd and 1st centuries B.C., the Hebrew tripartite division was disregarded, and the books (including those now known as the " Apocrypha ") were grouped mostly by subjects, the historical books being placed first (Genesis - Esther), the poetical books next (Job - Song of Songs), and the prophetical books last (Isaiah - Malachi).
The Apocrypha) from the rest, and placed them at the end; the remaining books, as they stood in the Vulgate, were then in the order which they still retain in the English Bible.
No a priori distinction can be made and no precise chronological line can be drawn between the books of the Canon (Canticles, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Ezekiel and Proverbs had been at one time or another subjects of debate among the Rabbis) and the Apocrypha (Ecclesiasticus, Judith, Maccabees and Tobit, were " allowed "); and the intimate relation between them appears in the character of the " Wisdom Literature " (e.g.
The revised Apocrypha did not make its appearance until 1895.
Later Jewish doctrine of the last things and in the official exegesis of the Targums. In the very developed eschatology of Daniel they are, as we have seen, altogether wanting, and in the Apocrypha, both before and after the Maccabean revival, the everlasting throne of David's house is a mere historical reminiscence (Ecclus.
One exception being the substitution of some chapters of the canonical scriptures for some chapters of the Apocrypha, especially of the book of Tobit.
In the Septuagint and Vulgate it immediately precedes Esther, and along with Tobit comes after Nehemiah; in the English Apocrypha it is placed between Tobit and the apocryphal additions to Esther.
Ball (Speaker's Apocrypha, i.
- Ball, Speaker's Apocrypha (1888), an excellent piece of work; Scholz, Das Buch Judith (1896); Lohr, Apok.
Form of Hananiah, or Ananiah, a name occurring several times in the Old Testament and Apocrypha (Neh.
Apocrypha; but many more are due perhaps to misconceptions such as only a listener (not the reader of a book) could fall into.
Several series of papers also, as, for example, on " The Retention of the Apocrypha," " Freemasonry " (1854), " Duelling " (1856) and The Relation between the Jews and the Christian Church " (1857 2nd ed., 1859), which originally appeared in the Kirchenzeitung, were afterwards printed in a separate form.
Henceforth even the mediocre scholar had a body of technical rules by which to sort out the vast mass of apocrypha in medieval documentary sources.
The more or less contemporary lives of Swift, most of which contain a certain amount of apocrypha, are those of Lord Orrery (1751); Dr Delany's Observations on Orrery (1754); Dean Swift's Essay upon the Life of Swift (1755); and Thomas Sheridan's Life (of 1785).
It enjoins public reading of certain lessons from the Apocrypha and uses in worship even the " Athanasian " as well as the two more ancient creeds.
The best short account of the book is given by Ball (Speaker's Apocrypha, ii.
The apocryphal book, The Acts of Andrew, mentioned by Eusebius, Epiphanius and others, is generally attributed to Leucius the Gnostic. It was edited and published by C. Tischendorf in the Ada Apostolorum apocrypha (Leipzig, 1821).