Now the ruins of the city, the great temple of Ptah, the dwelling of Apis, and the palaces of the kings, are traceable only by a few stones among the palm trees and fields and heaps of rubbish.
One of the chief monuments is the Serapeum or sepulchre of the Apis bulls, discovered by Mariette in 1851.
Genera: Cynips, Tenthredo, Sirex, Ichneumon, Sphex, Chrysis, Vespa, Apis, Formica, Mutilla.
The origin of this particular form of worship can scarcely be sought in Egypt; the Apis which was worshipped there was a live bull, and image-worship was common among the Canaanites in connexion with the cult of Baal and Astarte (qq.v.).
- Jaws of Hive-bee (Apis mellifica).
APIS or Hapis, the sacred bull of Memphis, in Egyptian Hp, Hape, Hope.
The Osiris Apis, just as dead men were assimilated to Osiris, the king of the underworld.
Apis was the most important of all the sacred animals in Egypt, and, like the others, its importance increased as time went on.
Greek and Roman authors have much to say about Apis, the marks by which the black bull-calf was recognized, the manner of his conception by a ray from heaven, his house at Memphis with court for disporting himself, the mode of prognostication from his actions, the mourning at his death, his costly burial and the rejoicings throughout the country when a new Apis was found.
It was distinguished by certain marks, and when the old Apis died a new one was sought; the finder was rewarded, and the bull underwent four months' education at Nilopolis.
A Greek statue was therefore chosen as the idol, and it was proclaimed as the anthropomorphic equivalent of a much revered and highly popular Egyptian beast-divinity, the dead Apis, assimilated to Osiris.
It is assumed above that the name Serapis (so written in later Greek and in Latin, in earlier Greek Sarapis) is derived from the Egyptian Userhapi - as it were Osiris-Apis - the name of the bull Apis, dead and, like all the blessed dead, assimilated to Osiris,.
We know that in Herodotus's day, and long before, the discovery of the new Apis was the occasion of universal rejoicing, and his death of universal mourning.
The ancient Serapeum (Puserhapi) and the name Userhap would be almost as familiar to early Greek wanderers in Egypt as the Apieum and Apis itself.
According to one account in Tacitus, Sarapis was the god of the village of Rhacotis before it suddenly expanded into a great capital; but it is not very probable that temples were erected to the dead Apis except at his Memphite tomb.
On the other hand, Osiris with Isis and Horus was everywhere honoured and popular, and while the artificer Ptah, the god of the great native capital of Egypt, made no appeal to the imagination, the Apis bull, an incarnation of Ptah, threw Ptah himself altogether into the shade in the popular estimation.
The combination of Osiris and the Apis bull which was found in the dead Apis was thus a most politic choice in naming the new divinity, whose figure represented a god of the underworld wearing an emblem of fruitfulness.
It would considerably alter our conception of the dead Apis if we were to find that a travelling shrine of his divinity accompanied Alexander on his expedition or was set up for him in Babylon.
It seems unwarranted to make this Sarapsi= Sarapis travel to Sinope and thence to Alexandria as the type of the Egyptian god; but whether or no the Egyptian appellation Sarapis was applied to express the Babylonian Sarapsi, the part it played in the last days of Alexander may have determined the choice by which the Egyptian Osiris-Apis supplied the name and some leading characteristics to the god of Alexandria.
Serapis was a god imported by the first Ptolemy from Sinope on the Black Sea, who soon lost his own identity by assimilation with Osiris-Apis, the bull revered in Memphis.
For information as to Ammon, Anubis, Apis, Bes, Bubastis, Buto, Isis and Thoth, reference must be made to the special articles on these gods.
Yet he recognized correctly the names of Apis and Re, with many groups for words such as assembly, good, name, and of the later periods with some accuracy, and his comprehension of demotic was considerable.
Records of the time that has elapsed between two regnal dates in the reigns of different kings are very helpful; thus stelae from the Serapeum recording the ages of the Apis bulls with the dates of their birth and death have fixed the chronology of the XXVIth Dynasty.
Upper Egypt, however, was loyal to Tirhaka, and even at Memphis the burial of an Apis bull was dated by the priests as in.
2.--Head and Appendages of Honey-bee (Apis) (magnified sixteen times).
Among the humble-bees (Bombus) the workers help the queen, who takes her share in the duties of the nest; the distinction between queen and workers is therefore less absolute than in the hive-bees (Apis), whose queen, relieved of all nursing and building cares by the workers, devotes her whole energies b FIG.
- Honey-bee (Apis mellifica).
- Larva and Pupa of Apis (magnified four times).
The leaf-cutter bees (Megachile) - which differ from Andrena and Halictus and agree with Osmia, Apis and Bombus in having elongate tongues - cut neat circular disks from leaves, using them for lining the cells of their underground nests.
In our well-known hive-bee (Apis) and humble-bees (Bombus) the wax glands are ventral FIG.
- Abdominal Plate (worker of Apis), under side, third segment (magnified twenty times).
With Apis, the genus of the hive-bee, we come to the most highly-specialized members of the family - better known,perhaps, than any other insects, on account of the long domestication of many of the species or races.
C, Feathered hairs with pollen d, Fore-leg of Apis showing grains, magnified.
The cells of the honeycomb of Apis are usually hexagonal in form, and arranged in two series back to back (figs.
- More has been written on bees, and especially on the genus Apis, than on any other group of insects.
(4) The worship of trees, plants and animals is a particular phase of the wider series of nature-cults, only named here because of its frequency and its obvious survivals in some of the higher polytheisms, where, as in Egypt, the Apis bulls were worshipped; or where, as in Mesopotamia, the great gods are partly symbolized by animal forms; or where, as in Israel, Yahweh might be represented as a bull; or where, as in Greece, such epithets as Dendrites and Endendros preserved traces of the association of Dionysus and Zeus with vegetation; while sacred animals like the serpents of Aesculapius were preserved in the temples.6
Because he had killed the sacred Apis (Aelian, Var.
560 D, this tradition is corrected by the Persians: Cambyses wants to marry a daughter of Amasis, who sends him a daughter of Apries instead of his own daughter, and by her Cambyses is induced to begin the war.) His great crime is the killing of the Apis, for which he is punished by madness, in which he commits many other crimes, kills his brother and his sister, and at last loses his empire and dies from a wound in the hip, at the same place where he had wounded the sacred animal.
Locusta, Phryganea, Papilio, Apis, Musca, Cimex, Lucanus, Machilis.
Pasht, the cat, was the god of Bubastis; Apis, the bull, of Memphis; Hapi, the wolf, of Sioot; Ba, the goat, of Mendes.