Such a comparison is necessarily illogical, as the existing apes are separated from the common ancestor by at least as large a number of generations as separate it from any of the forms of existing man.
Lemures, " ghosts"), the name applied by Linnaeus to certain peculiar Malagasy representatives of the order PRIMATES which do not come under the designation of either monkeys or apes, and, with allied animals from the same island and tropical Asia and Africa, constitute the sub-order Prosimiae, or Lemuroidea, the characteristics of which are given in the article just mentioned.
In these forests are found the two-horned rhinoceros, the elephant, lion, panther, numerous apes and antelopes, while the crocodile and hippopotamus frequent the rivers.
GIBBON, the collective title of the smaller man-like apes of the Indo-Malay countries, all of which may be included in the single genus Hylobates.
Till recently these apes have been generally included in the same family (Simiidae) with the chimpanzee, gorilla and orang-utan, but they are now regarded by several naturalists as representing a family by themselves - the Hylobatidae.
The extreme length of the limbs and the absence of a tail are other features of these small apes, which are thoroughly arboreal in their habits, and make the woods resound with their unearthly cries at night.
In addition to the absence of prehensile power in their tails, douroucoulis, also known as night-apes, are distinguished by their large eyes, the sockets of which occupy nearly the whole front of the upper part of the skull, the partition between the nostrils being in consequence narrower than usual.
Baboons and other apes are fairly common and there are several species of snakes.
CHIMPANZEE (Chimpanzi), the vernacular name of the highest species of the man-like apes, forming the typical representatives of the genus Anthropopithecus.
GORILLA (or PoNGO), the largest of the man-like apes, and a native of West Africa from the Congo to Cameroon, whence it extends eastwards across the continent to German East Africa.
It was long supposed that the apes encountered on an island off the west coast of Africa by Hanno, the Carthaginian, were gorillas, but in the XII.
On the old clearings of another village Mr Bates himself, although he did not see a gorilla, saw the fresh tracks of these great apes and the torn stems and discarded fruit rinds of the "mejoms," as well as the broken stalks of the latter, which had been used for beds.
The most notable fact in the geological history of the archipelago is the discovery in Java of the fossil remains of Pithecanthropus erectus, a form intermediate between the higher apes and man.
Lions, formerly plentiful, have disappeared, and leopards and panthers are rare; but jackals, hyenas and Algerian apes are not uncommon.
So man was made first of clay, but he was strengthless and senseless and melted in the water; then they made a race of wooden mannikins, but these were useless creatures without heart or mind, and they were destroyed by a great flood and pitch poured down on them from heaven, those who were left of them being turned into the apes still to be seen in the woods.
So close indeed is the similarity that many monkeys, apes and human beings have an apparently instinctive fear of all snakes and do not discriminate between poisonous and non-poisonous forms. Hence it may be that innocuous snakes are in many instances sufficiently protected by their likeness in shape to poisonous species that close and exact resemblance in colour to particular species is superfluous.
Numberless semi-divine beings had no r purpose than to fill,out the myths, as, for instance, the tering apes that greeted the sun-god Re as he rose above eastern horizon, and the demons who opened the gates of nether world at the approach of the setting sun.
Experiment shows that in the manlike (anthropoid) apes the differentiation of the foci or "centres" of movement in the motor field of the cortex is even more minute.
In 1790 he published his important Versuch, die Metamorphose der Pflanzen zu erkleiren, which was an even more fundamental achievement for the new science of comparative morphology than his discovery some six years earlier of the existence of a formation in the human jaw-bone analogous to the intermaxillary bone in apes; and in 1791 and 1792 appeared two parts of his Beitrage zur Optik.
The red, or brownish-red, colour of the long and coarse hair at once distinguishes the orang-utan from the African apes; a further point of distinction being the excessive length of the arms, which are of such proportions that the animal when in the upright posture (which it seldom voluntarily assumes) can rest on its bent knuckles.
In confinement these apes (of which adult specimens have been exhibited in Calcutta) appear very slow and deliberate in their movements; but in their native forests they swing themselves from bough to bough and from tree to tree as fast as a man can walk on the ground beneath.
ANTHROPOID APES, or Manlike Apes, the name given to the family of the Simiidae, because, of all the ape-world, they most closely resemble man.
Each of these apes resembles man most in some one physical characteristic: the gibbons in the formation of the teeth, the orangs in the brain-structure, the gorillas in size, and the chimpanzees in the sigmoid flexure of the spine.
Together with man and the baboons, the anthropoid apes form the group known to science as Catarhini, those, that is, possessing a narrow nasal septum, and are thus easily distinguishable from the flat-nosed monkeys or Platyrhini.
The anthropoid apes are arboreal and confined to the Old World.
It is generally admitted now that no fundamental anatomical difference can be proved to exist between these higher apes and man, but it is equally agreed that none probably of the Simiidae is in the direct line of human ancestry.
Hartmann's Anthropoid Apes (1883; London, 1885); A.
In 1863, however, Huxley in his Man's Place in Nature demonstrated that the higher apes might fairly be included in Bimana.
Probably sandal-wood), ivory, apes and peacocks.
Thus Gallic petor (petor-ritum, " four-wheeler "), Umbrian petur, Homeric 7rfvvp€S, Boeotian (Achaean) 7lr7-apes, Welsh pedwar; but Gaelic cethir, Lat.
The acknowledgment of man's structural similarity with the anthropomorphous species nearest approaching him, viz.: the higher or anthropoid apes, had long before Prichard's day been made by Linnaeus, who in his Systema Naturae (1735) grouped them together as the highest order of Mammalia, to which he gave the name of Primates.
In this picture, which shows the crudeness of the zoological notions current in the 18th century as to both men and apes, there are set in a row four figures: (a) a recognizable orang-utan, sitting and holding a staff; (b) a chimpanzee, absurdly humanized as to head, hands, and feet; (c) a hairy woman, with a tail a foot long; (d) another woman, more completely coated with hair.
One of these apes, it was related, served as a sailor on board a Jamaica ship, and used to wait on the captain.
As for the story of the orang-utan cabin boy, this may even be verbally true, it being borne in mind that in the Malay languages the term orang-utan, " man of the forest," was originally used for inland forest natives and other rude men, rather than for the miyas apes to which it has come to be generally applied by Europeans.
In tracing the osteological characters of apes and man through this series, the general system of the skeletons, and the close correspondence in number and arrangement of vertebrae and ribs, as well as in the teeth, go far towards justifying the opinion of hereditary connexion.
It may be seen how the arrangement of limbs suited for going on all-fours belongs rather to the apes than to man, and walking on the soles of the feet rather to man than the apes.
The two modes of progression overlap in human life, but the child's tendency when learning is to rest on the soles of the feet and the palms of the hands, unlike the apes, which support themselves on the sides of the feet and the bent knuckles of the hands.
With regard to climbing, the long stretch of arm and the grasp with both hands and feet contribute to the arboreal life of the apes, contrasting with what seem the mere remains of the climbing habit to be found even among forest savages.
The foot of the higher apes, though often spoken of as a hand, is anatomically not such, but a prehensile foot.
It has been argued by Sir Richard Owen and others that the position of the great toe converts the foot of the higher apes into a hand, an extremely important distinction from man; but against this Professor T.
The external unlikeness of the apes to man depends much on their hairiness, but this and some other characteristics have no great zoological value.
While similar as to their general arrangement to the human brain, those of the higher apes, such as the chimpanzee, are much less complex in their convolutions, as well as much less in both absolute and relative weight - the weight of a gorilla's brain hardly exceeding 20 oz., and a man's brain hardly weighing less than 32 oz., although the gorilla is considerably the larger animal of the two.
It is plain that some eminent zoologists, regarding man as absolutely differing as to mind and spirit from any other animal, have had their discrimination of mere bodily differences unconsciously sharpened, and have been led to give differences, such as in the brain or even the foot of the apes and man, somewhat more importance than if they had merely distinguished two species of apes.
Many naturalists hold the opinion that the anatomical differences which separate the gorilla or chimpanzee from man are in some respects less than those which separate these man-like apes from apes lower in the scale.
Yet all authorities class both the higher and lower apes in the same order.
As to the vertebral column and pelvis, the lower apes differ from the gorilla as much as, or more than, it differs from man.
As to the capacity of the cranium, men differ from one another so extremely that the largest known human skull holds nearly twice the measure of the smallest, a larger proportion than that in which man surpasses the gorilla; while, with proper allowance for difference of size of the various species, it appears that some of the lower apes fall nearly as much below the higher apes.
In characters of such importance as the structure of the hand and foot, the lower apes diverge extremely from the gorilla; thus the thumb ceases to be opposable in the American monkeys, and in the marmosets is directed forwards, and armed with a curved claw like the other digits, the great toe in these latter being insignificant in proportion.
A series of the apes, arranged from lower to higher orders, shows gradations from a brain little higher that that of a rat, to a brain like a small and imperfect imitation of a man's; and the greatest structural break in the series lies not between man and the manlike apes, but between the apes and monkeys on one side, and the lemurs on the other.
First, the Anthropini, consisting of man only; second, the Catarhini or Old World apes; third, the Platyrhini, all New World apes, except the marmosets; fourth, the Arctopithecini, or marmosets; fifth, the Lemurini, or lemurs; sixth and seventh, the Cheiromyini and Galeopithecini.