The Indian element in the population is made up of several distinct races - the Aztec or Mexican, Misteca-Zapoteca, Maya or Yucateco, Otomi or Othomi, and in smaller number the Totonac, Tarasco, Apache, Matlanzingo, Chontal, Mixe, Zoque, Guaicuro, OpataPima, Tapijulapa, Seri and Huavi.
The other Indians live on reservations, of which there are three: the Mescalero Apache reservation, in Otero county, containing 554 Indians in 190o; the Jicarilla Apache reservation, in Rio Arriba county, with a population of 829; and the Navaho reservation, in Utah, Arizona and New Mexico, which contains in that part of it situated in New Mexico a population of 2480.
The Apache Indians, the most savage of all, were placed on reservations somewhat later, but for many years bands of their warriors would escape and make raids into New Mexico, Arizona and Mexico.
The most notable of the later outbreaks were those in1879-1880and in1885-1886respectively of the Apache chiefs Victorio and Geronimo (c. 1834-1909).
They were the most relentless of all the warriors.
The decay of the military power of the presidios during the Mexican war of independence, the expulsion of loyal Spaniards - notably friars - and the renewal of Apache wars, led to the temporary abandonment of all settlements except Tubac and Tucson.
Saltillo was founded in 1586 as an outpost against the Apache Indians.