ANUBIS (in Egyptian Anup, written Inpw in hieroglyphs), the name of one of the most important of the Egyptian gods.
There were two types of canine divinities in Egypt, their leading representatives being respectively Anubis and Ophois (W p-w;-wt, " opener of the ways"): the former type is symbolized by the recumbent animal the other by a similar animal (in a stiff standing attitude), carried as an emblem on a standard in war or in religious processions.
In late days the Greeks report that KuvES (dogs) were the sacred animals of Anubis while those of Ophois were Aukoc (wolves).
The domestic dog would be brought into the sacred circle through the increased veneration for animals, and the more pronounced view in later times of Anubis as servant, messenger and custodian of the gods.
Anubis was the principal god in the capitals of the XVIIth and XVIIIth nomes of Upper Egypt, and secondary god in the XIIIth and probably in the XIIth nome; but his cult was universal.
In the scene of the weighing of the soul before Osiris, dating from the New-kingdom onwards, Anubis attends to the balance while Thoth registers the result.
Anubis was believed to have been the embalmer of Osiris: the mummy of Osiris, or of the deceased, on a bier, tended by this god, is a very common subject on funerary tablets of the late periods.
In those days Anubis was considered to be son of Osiris by Nephthys; earlier perhaps he was son of Re, the sun-god.
The cult of Anubis must at all times have been very popular in Egypt, and, belonging to the Isis and Serapis cycle, was introduced into Greece and Rome.
Here were worshipped two canine gods (see ANUBIS), Ophois (Wepwoi) being the principal god of the city, while Anubis apparently presided over the necropolis.
The Hebrew "shekel of the sanctuary" is familiar; the standard volume of the apet was secured in the dromus of Anubis at Memphis (35); in Athens, besides the standard weight, twelve copies for public comparison were kept in the city; also standard volume measures in several places (2); at Pompeii the block with standard volumes cut in it was found in the portico of the forum (33); other such standards are known in Greek cities (Gythium, Panidum and Trajanopolis) (11, 33); at Rome the standards were kept in the Capitol, and weights also in the temple of Hercules (2); the standard cubit of the Nilometer was before Constantine in the Serapaeum, but was removed by him to the church (2).
The anthropomorphic Isis and Horus were easily rendered in Greek style, and Anubis was prepared for by Cerberus.
The worship of Serapis along with Isis, Horus and Anubis spread far and wide, reached Rome, and ultimately became one of the leading cults of the west.
But it was a sign of the times when Serapis and Isis, Osiris and Anubis began to take place among the popular deities in the old Greek lands.
The religion of the Mithras (Lafaye, Culte des divinites alexandrines, 1884; Roscher, articles " Anubis," " Isis," &c.; F.
~ the nome of the dog Anubis, the 17th or Cynopolite nome of Upper Egypt.
For information as to Ammon, Anubis, Apis, Bes, Bubastis, Buto, Isis and Thoth, reference must be made to the special articles on these gods.
Besides Thoth, Anubis was constantly identified with Hermes; see also Horus.
Excavation has brought to light figurines of the Egyptian Osiris, Isis, Ptah, Anubis and especially Bes.
Yet the figure of Zeus had almost faded from the religious world of Hellas some time before the end of paganism; and Lucian makes him complain that even the Egyptian Anubis is more popular than he, and that men think they have done the outworn God sufficient honour if they sacrifice to him once in five years at Olympia.