This skin, with the skull and antlers, was sent to Paris, where it was described in 1866 by Professor Milne-Edwards.
In lacking a browtine, and dividing in a regular fork-like manner some distance above the burr, the large and cylindrical antlers of this species conform to the general structural type characteristic of the American deer.
The head is long and narrow, with a prominent ridge for the support of the antlers, moderate-sized ears, and a narrow and pointed muzzle.
It has been noticed at Woburn Abbey that the antlers are shed and replaced twice a year.
(6) Stalagmite with a few bones and antlers of reindeer, the thickness varying from one to fifteen inches.
WATER-DEER, a small member of the deer-tribe from northern China differing from all other Cervidae except the muskdeer (with which it has no affinity) by the absence of antlers in both sexes.
A very beautiful stag (shika), with eight-branched antlers, inhabits the remote woodlands, and there are five species of antelope (kamo-shika) which are found in the highest and least accessible parts of the mountains.
High at the shoulder), the typical representative of a genus (Capreolus) in which the antlers lack a brow-tine and belong to what is characterized as the forked type, while the tail is rudimentary (see DEER).
The Manchurian roe (Capreolus manchuricus) is about the size of the European species, with antlers of the type of those of the Siberian roe, but more slender, and the coat shorter.
FALLOW-DEER (that is, DUN Deer, in contradistinction to the red deer, Cervus [Dama] dama), a medium-sized representative of the family Cervidae, characterized by its expanded or palmated antlers, which generally have no bez-tine, rather long tail (black above and white below), and a coat spotted with white in summer but uniformly coloured in winter.
The antlers have the trez-tine near the small brow-tine, and the palmation beginning near the former.
The antlers are greatly palmated and of enormous size, fine specimens measuring as much as 11 ft.
Development of horns or antlers on the frontal bones, and gradual complication of form of antlers.
And it is fair to remember in her defence that Pirkheimer when he denounced her was old, gouty and peevish, and that the immediate occasion of his outbreak against his friend's widow was a fit of anger because she had not let him have a pair of antlers - a household ornament much prized in those days - to which he fancied himself entitled out of the property left by Darer.
Owing to liability to necrosis, the permanent retention of such a mass of dead bone would be dangerous; and the antlers are consequently shed annually (or every few years), to be renewed the following year, when, till the animal becomes past its prime, they are larger than their predecessors.
With the exception of the reindeer, antlers are confined to the males.
Gadow is of opinion that the antlers of the deer, the hornlike protuberances on the skull of the giraffe, and the true horns of the prongbuck and other hollow-horned ruminants (Bovidae) are all different stages of evolution from a single common type: the antlers of the deer being the most primitive, and the horns of the Bovidae the most specialized.
From the fact that the bony horn-core of the hollow-horned ruminants first develops as a separate ossification, as do the horns of the giraffe, while the pedicle of the antlers of the deer grow direct from the frontal bone, it has been proposed to place the hollow-horned ruminants (inclusive of the prongbuck) and the giraffes in one group and the deer in another.
The frontal appendages, when present, are confined (except in the case of the reindeer) to the males, and take the form of antlers, that is to say of type No.
- Skull of Chinese Water-Deer, Hydrelaphus inermis (adult male), a Deer without Antlers, but with largely developed upper canine teeth.
As we descend in the geological series the deer have simpler antlers, as in the European Miocene Dicrocerus; while in the Oligocene Amphitragulus, Dremotherium and Palaeomeryx, constituting the family Palaeomerycidae, antlers were absent, and the crowns of the molars so low that the whole depth of the hollows between the crescentic columns is completely visible.
From the presence of these well-marked antlers the skeleton would at first sight be set down as that of a small and primitive deer, conforming in regard to the structure of these appendages to the American type of the group. Mr W.
Either we must regard Merycodus as a deer which parallels the antelopes and the prongbuck in every detail of skeletal structure, or else, like the prongbuck, an antelope separated from the main stock at a date sufficiently early to have permitted the development of a distinct type of cranial appendages, namely, antlers in place of true horns.
Whatever be the ultimate verdict, the association of antlers - and these, be it noticed, conforming almost exactly with the forked type characteristic of American deer - with an antilopine type of skull, skeleton and teeth in Merycodus is a most interesting and unexpected feature.
As regards their distinctive features, the antlers are of a complex type and situated close to the occipital ridge of the skull, and thus far away from the sockets of the eyes, with the brow-tines in adult males palmated, laterally compressed, deflected towards the middle of the face, and often unsymmetrically developed.
The antlers of females are simple and generally smaller.
The antlers are smooth, and brownish white in colour, but the hoofs jet black.
It is a smaller animal than the American woodland race, with antlers approximating to those of the barren-ground race, but less elongated, and with a distinct back-tine in the male, the brow-tines moderately palmated and frequently nearly symmetrical, and the bez-tine not excessively expanded..
Female antlers are generally much smaller than those of males, although occasionally as large, but with much fewer points.
The antlers make their appearance at an unusually early age.
Some of these forms are, however, more or less intermediate between the two main types, as is a pair of antlers from Novaia Zemlia described by the present writer as R.
High, with spreading antlers nearly 3 ft.
A stag dragged him from his horse by fixing its antlers in his belt.
(See Pecora; Artjodactyla and Ungulata.) Briefly, deer may be defined as Pecora presenting the following characteristics: - either antlers present in the male, or when these are absent, the upper canines large and sabre-like, and the lateral metacarpal bones represented only by their lower extremities.
The leading characters of antlers are described under Pecora, but these structures may be defined somewhat more fully in the following passage from the present writer's Deer of all Lands:- " Antlers are supported on a pair of solid bony processes, or pedicles, arising from the frontal bones of the skull, of which they form an inseparable portion; and if in a fully adult deer these pedicles be sawn through, they will generally be found to consist of solid, ivory-like bone, devoid of perceptible channels for the passage of blood-vessels.
The pedicles are always covered with skin well supplied with blood-vessels; and in young deer, or those in which the antlers have been comparatively recently shed, the covering of skin extends over their summits, when they appear as longer or shorter projections on the forehead, according to the species.
" When the antlers are freed from the velvet - a process usually assisted by the animal rubbing them against tree stems or boughs - they have a more or less rugose surface, owing to the grooves formed in them by the nutrient blood-vessels.
In the antlers of the red-deer group, which form the type of the whole series, the following names have been applied to their different component parts and branches.
"The antlers of young deer are in the form of simple spikes; and this form is retained in the South American brockets, although the simple antlers of these deer appear due to degeneration, and are not primitive types.
Indeed, no living deer shows such primitive spikelike antlers in the adult, and it is doubtful whether such a type is displayed by any known extinct form, although many have a simple fork.
In the deer of the sambar group, where the antlers never advance beyond a three-tined type, the shedding is frequently, if not invariably, very irregular; but in the majority at least of the species with complex antlers the replacement is annual, the new appendages attaining their full development immediately before the pairing-season.
In such species there is a more or less regular annual increase in the complexity of the antlers up to a certain period of life, after which they begin to degenerate."
- Antlers, with one exception, present in the male; liver without a gall-bladder; a face-gland, and a gland-pit in the skull.
- Lateral metacarpal bones represented only by their lower extremities; antlers present in both sexes, complex.
- Lateral metacarpals as in preceding; antlers (as in the following genera) present only in the male, arising at right angles to the median longitudinal line of the skull, and extending at first in the plane of the forehead, after which, when in their fullest development, they expand into a broad palmation margined with snags.
- Antlers rounded, usually with five or more tines, generally including a bez (second), and always a trez (third); coat of adult generally unspotted, with a large lightcoloured disk surrounding the tail; young, spotted.
- Antlers smaller and simpler, four-tined, with a trez (third), but no bez (second); coat of adult spotted, at least in summer, with a white area bordered by black in the region of the tail, which is also black and white.
- Antlers without a bez, but with a trez-tine, above which the beam is more or less palmated, and generally furnished with numerous snags; coat of adult spotted in summer, uniform in winter, with black and white markings in the region of the tail similar to those of Pseudaxis; young, spotted.
- Antlers rounded, threetined, with the bezand trez-tines wanting, and the beam simply forked at the summit; coat either uniform or spotted at all seasons.
- Antlers flattened or rounded, without bezor trez-tine, the beam dichotomously forking, and one or both branches again forked, so that the number of tines is at least four; brow-tine forming a right angle or a continuous curve with the beam; coat of adult generally more or less uniform, of young spotted.