Thus the history of the Nabataeans cannot certainly be carried back beyond 312 B.C., at which date they were attacked without success by Antigonus I.
That culture was naturally Aramaic; they wrote a letter to Antigonus "in Syriac letters," and Aramaic continued to be the language of their coins and inscriptions when the tribe grew into a kingdom, and profited by the decay of the Seleucids to extend its borders northward over the more fertile country east of the Jordan.
During the Macedonian supremacy the town passed in turn from Cassander and Demetrius Poliorcetes to Antigonus Gonatas, and finally was incorporated in the Achaean League.
The chief incidents of Rhodian history during this period are a memorable siege by Demetrius Poliorcetes in 304, who sought in vain to force the city into active alliance with King Antigonus by means of his formidable fleet and artillery; a severe earthquake in 227, the damages of which all the other Hellenistic states contributed to repair, because they could not afford to see the island ruined; some vigorous campaigns against Byzantium, the Pergamene and the Pontic kings, who had threatened the Black Sea trade-route (220 sqq.), and against the pirates of Crete.
Antigonus Cyclops >>
Antigonus, the son of Aristobulus, made a raid and was with difficulty repulsed by Herod.
In 40 B.C. Antony was absent in Egypt or Italy; and the Parthians swept down upon Syria with Antigonus in their train.
Hyrcanus, who was Antigonus' only rival, was mutilated and carried to Parthia.
Thus Antigonus succeeded his uncle as " King Antigonus " in the Greek and " Mattathiah the high priest " in the Hebrew by grace of the Parthians.
Galilee was pacified, Jerusalem taken and Antigonus beheaded by the Romans.
It was built by Antigonus, perhaps about 310 B.C., and was called by him Antigonia Troas.
In 316, when Antigonus had made himself master of the eastern provinces, Seleucus felt himself threatened and fled to Egypt.
In the war which followed between Antigonus and the other Macedonian chiefs, Seleucus actively co-operated with Ptolemy and commanded Egyptian squadrons in the Aegean.
A raid into Babylonia conducted in 311 by Demetrius, son of Antigonus, did not seriously check Seleucus's progress.
Whilst Antigonus was occupied in the west, Seleucus during nine years (311-302) brought under his authority the whole eastern part of Alexander's empire as far as the Jaxartes and Indus.
The pressing need for Seleucus once more to take the field against Antigonus was at any rate in large measure the cause of his abandonment of India.
In 301 he joined Lysimachus in Asia Minor, and at Ipsus Antigonus fell before their combined power.
When Antigonus Gonatas threatened to restore Macedonian power in Greece, the Athenians, supported perhaps by the king of Egypt, formed a large defensive coalition; but in the ensuing " Chremonidean War " (266-263) a naval defeat off Andros led to their surrender and the imposition of a Macedonian garrison.
His friendship with Antigonus Gonatas seems to have roused suspicion as to his loyalty, and he sought safety first in the temple of Amphiaraus at Oropus, and later with Antigonus, at whose court he is said to have died of grief.
Other accounts say that he starved himself to death on failing to induce Antigonus to free his native city.
For the detailed accounts of the separate dynasties into which it was divided after Alexander's death, see Seleucid Dynasty, Antigonus, Pergamum, &C., and for its effect on the spread of Hellenic culture see Hellenism.
Hence the first intestine war among the Macedonians, in which Antipater, Antigonus, the satrap of Phrygia, and Ptolemy, the satrap of Egypt, were allied against Perdiccas, who was ultimately murdered in 321 on the Egyptian frontier (see [[Perdiccas , Eumenes).
A]] second settlement, made at Triparadisus in Syria in 321, constituted Antipater regent and increased the power of Antigonus in Asia.
In 316 Antigonus had defeated and killed Eumenes and made himself supreme from the Aegean to Iran, and Cassander had 1 For details see separate articles on the chief generals.
But now a third war began, the old associates of Antigonus, alarmed by his overgrown power, combining against him - Cassander, Ptolemy, Lysimachus, the governor of Thrace, and Seleucus, who had fled before Antigonus from his satrapy of Babylonia.
From 315 to 301 the war of Antigonus against these four went on, with one short truce in 311.
Antigonus never succeeded in reaching Macedonia, although his son Demetrius won Athens and Megara in 307 and again (304-302) wrested almost all Greece from Cassander; nor did Antigonus succeed in expelling Ptolemy from Egypt, although he led an army to its frontier in 306; and after the battle of Gaza in 312, in which Ptolemy and Seleucus defeated Demetrius, he had to see Seleucus not only recover Babylonia but bring all the eastern provinces under his authority as far as India.
Thus the old royal house became extinct in the male line, and in 306 Antigonus assumed the title of king.
In 301 the coalition triumphed over Antigonus in the battle of Ipsus (in Phrygia) and he himself was slain.
Of the four kings who now divided the Macedonian Empire amongst them, two were not destined to found durable dynasties, while the house of Antigonus, represented by Demetrius, was after all to do so.
In 276 Antigonus Gonatas, the son of Demetrius, after inflicting a crushing defeat on the Gauls near Lysimachia, at last won Macedonia definitively for his house.
The practice by which the king associated a son with himself, as secondary king, dates from the very beginning of the kingdoms of the Successors; Antigonus on assuming the diadem in 306 caused Demetrius also to bear the title of king.
Corinth, however, was allowed to go on striking staters under Antigonus Gonatas; Ephesus, Cos and the greater cities of Phoenicia retained their right of coinage under Seleucid or Ptolemaic supremacy.
Antigonus Gonatas, bluff soldier-spirit that he was, heard the Stoic philosophers gladly, and, though he failed to induce Zeno to come to Macedonia, persuaded Zeno's disciple, Persaeus of Citium, to enter his service.
Such worship might be the spontaneous homage of a particular Greek community, like that offered to Antigonus by Scepsis in 311 (fount.
335 seq.), the Antigonus and Demetrius by Athens in 307, to Ptolemy I.
51); Antigonus Doson takes with him to Greece (in 222) one of 10,000 only.
He likewise refers to the use of byblus as tow for caulking the seams of ships; and the statement of Theophrastus that King Antigonus made the rigging of his fleet of the same material is illustrated by the ship's cable, ern-Nov (315(Ncvov, wherewith the doors were fastened when Ulysses slew the suitors in his hall (Odyss.
King Antigonus is said to have had a branch of the true frankincense tree sent to him.
The Greeks used it loosely of various parts of the shores of the Euxine, and the term did not get a definite connotation till after the establishment of the kingdom founded beyond the Halys during the troubled period following the death of Alexander the Great, about 301 B.C., by Mithradates I., Ktistes, son of a Persian satrap in the service of Antigonus, one of Alexander's successors, and ruled by a succession of kings, mostly bearing the same name, till 64 B.C. As the greater part of this kingdom lay within the immense region of Cappadocia, which in early ages extended from the borders of Cilicia to the Euxine, the kingdom as a whole was at first called "Cappadocia towards the Pontus" (irpos TW H6vro), but afterwards simply "Pontus," the name Cappadocia being henceforth restricted to the southern half of the region previously included under that title.
In honour of the Achaeans' ally Antigonus Doson.
At Crannon in Thessaly there was a bronze chariot, which in time of drought was shaken and prayers offered for rain (Antigonus of Carystus, Historiae mirabiles, 15).
After the manner of the sophists of the period, Bion travelled through Greece and Macedonia, and was admitted to the literary circle at the court of Antigonus Gonatas.
68, hanc ei gloriam concessere Antigonus et Xenocrates, qui de pictura scripsere), while Antigonus is named in the Indices of xxxiii.-xxxiv.
In 224 they held Heracleia Trachis against Antigonus Doson, but lost control of Boeotia and Phocis.
Alexandretta), Samaria, Pella (the later Apamea), Carrhae, &c. Antigonus founded Antigonia, which was absorbed a few years later by Antioch, and after the fall of Antigonus in 301, the work of planting Syria with Greek cities was pursued effectively north of the Lebanon by the house of Seleucus, and, less energetically, south of the Lebanon by the house of Ptolemy.
He was treated with equal friendliness by Antigonus's son Demetrius, who made him polemarch of Thespiae, and by Antigonus Gonatas, at whose court he died at the age of 104.
Alexander the Great placed Phrygia under the command of Antigonus, who retained it when the empire was broken up. When Antigonus was defeated and slain, at the decisive battle of Ipsus, Phrygia came under the sway of Seleucus.
Restored the royal power by murdering four of the ephors and abolishing the office, and though it was revived by Antigonus Doson after the battle of Sellasia, and existed at least down to Hadrian's reign (Sparta Museum Catalogue, Introd.
Abandoned by his captain and future rival, Seleucus, Ptolemy retired and left Palestine to Antigonus for ten years.