Another science which Virchow cultivated with conspicuous success was anthropology, which he did much to put on a sound critical basis.
At the meeting of the Naturforscherversammlung at Innsbruck in 1869, he was one of the founders of the German Anthropological Society, of which he became president in the following year; and from 1869 onwards he presided over the Berlin Anthropological Society, also acting as editor of its proceedings in the Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologic. In ethnology he published a volume of essays on the physical anthropology of the Germans, with special reference to the Frisians; and at his instance a census, which yielded remarkable results, was carried out among school children throughout Germany, to determine the relative distribution of blondes and brunettes.
Geography is a synthetic science, dependent for the data with which it deals on the results of specialized sciences such as astronomy, geology, oceanography, meteorology, biology and anthropology, as well as on topographical description.
Geography appealed to him as a valuable educational discipline, the joint foundation with anthropology of that " knowledge of the world " which was the result of reason and experience.
Thus geology, meteorology, oceanography and anthropology developed into distinct sciences.
The science of geography, passed on from antiquity by Ptolemy, re-established by Varenius and Newton, and systematized by Kant, included within itself definite aspects of all those terrestrial phenomena which are now treated exhaustively under the heads of geology, meteorology, oceanography and anthropology; and the inclusion of the requisite portions of the perfected results of these sciences in geography is simply the gathering in of fruit matured from the seed scattered by geography itself.
He was the author of Institutiones Physiologicae (1787), and of a Handbuck der vergleichenden Anatomie (1804), both of which were very popular and went through many editions, but he is best known for his work in connexion with anthropology, of which science he has been justly called the founder.
The first three books treat of God, the world, the fall of spirits, anthropology and ethics.
Brown library of music (9886 vols.), a very full collection on the anthropology and ethnology of Europe, and more than 10o,000 volumes on the history, biography, geography and literature of the United States.
7raXat6s, old, and Mos, stone), in anthropology, the characteristic epithet of the Drift or early Stone Age when Man shared the possession of Europe with the mammoth, the cave-bear, the woolly-haired rhinoceros and other extinct animals.
Garstang in Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology, i.
It thus stands in sharp contrast to the anthropology of Kant, which opposes human development conceived as the gradual manifestation of a growing faculty of rational free will to the operations of physical nature.
Thomas's Crystal Gazing the history and anthropology of the subject are investigated, with modern instances.
Following Notes and Queries on Anthropology, published by the British Association for the Advancement of Science, the study of the American aborigines divides itself into two parts: that relating to their biology, and that relating to their culture.
Since 1880 organized institutions of anthropology have taken the spade out of the hands of individual explorers in order to know the truth concerning Glacial or Pleistocene man.
Anthropologist, 1903, pp. 3 8 5-44 0; also papers on physical anthropology in the Handbook and Pubs.
Myres in Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology, ii.
For ethnological physiognomy, see amongst older authors Gratarolus, and amongst moderns the writers cited in the various textbooks on anthropology, especially Schadow, Physionomies nationales (1835) and Park Harrison, Journ.
- vi., geography and ethnography; vii., anthropology and human physiology; viii.
Jones in Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology, ii.
In 1907 he was elected professor of social anthropology at Liverpool.
(e) Natural history, anthropology, &c.: F.
He was one of the founders of the study of " Psychical Research," and his other writings on anthropology include The Book of Dreams and Ghosts (1897), Magic and Religion (1901) and The Secret of the Totem (1905).
- Periodicals: - (American) American Journal of Archaeology; Classical Journal; (Austrian) Jahreshefte des Osterreichischen Archaologischen Instituts; (British) Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology; Annual of the British School at Athens; Antiquaries Journal; Archaeologia; Journal of Hellenic Studies; Year's Work in Classical Studies; (French) Bulletin de Correspondance Hellenique; Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Inscriptions et BellesLettres; Revue Archeologique; Revue des Etudes Grecques; (German) Jahrbuch and Athenische Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archdologischen Instituts; (Greek) 'ApxacoXoytKdv AEXrtov, 'Apxacoaoyuc, 'E4» Epis and IlpaeroCa of the Athenian Archaeological Society; (Italian) Annuario della R.
It falls under the three heads of anthropology, phenomenology and psychology proper.
Anthropology treats of the mind in union with the body - of the natural soul - and discusses the relations of the soul with the planets, the races of mankind, the differences of age, dreams, animal magnetism, insanity and phrenology.
One may also consult the English and foreign journals devoted to folklore, comparative religion or anthropology (especially the volumes of Folklore, Index, s.v.
Stefansson's expedition also brought back many observations in anthropology and geology.
Arungquiltha, above), and anthropology has no business to attach any other meaning to the word if it undertakes to interpret the primitive point of view.
Earlier Anthropology, Bastian, Der Mensch in der Gesch.
Professor Theodor Waitz, in his Introduction to Anthropology, adduced many examples of the comparatively rapid constitutional adaptation of man to new climatic conditions.
One of these, the Letter to a Professor of Anthropology, was translated without.
Of the three divisions logic is the least important; ethics is the outcome of the whole, and historically the all-important vital element; but the foundations of the whole system are best discerned in the science of nature, which deals pre-eminently with the macrocosm and the microcosm, the universe and man, including natural theology and an anthropology or psychology, the latter forming the direct introduction to ethics.
The great dogmatic work of the Eastern Church was the definition of that portion of the creed of Christendom which concerns theology proper - the doctrines of the essential nature of the Godhead, and the doctrine of the God head in relation with manhood in the incarnation, while it fell to the Western Church to define anthropology, or the doctrine of man's nature and needs.
But his name is most closely associated with studies in anthropology and especially in heredity.
Psychology has been drawn upon to interpret the movements of revolutions or religions, anthropology and ethnology furnish a clue to problems to which the key of documents has been lost.
To anthropology, however, in its more general sense as the natural history of man, ethnology and ethnography may both be considered to belong, being related as parts to a whole.
Various other sciences, in conformity with the above definition, must be regarded as subsidiary to anthropology, which yet hold their own independent places in the field of knowledge.
C. Prichard, who perhaps of all others merits the title of founder of modern anthropology, wrote in his Natural History of Man:- " The organized world presents no contrasts and resemblances more remarkable than those which we discover on comparing mankind with the inferior tribes.
Of Man; Waitz, Anthropology, part i.
The yet simpler classification by Cuvier into Caucasian, Mongol and Negro corresponds in some measure with a division by mere complexion into white, yellow and black races; but neither this threefold division, nor the ancient classification into Semitic, Hamitic and Japhetic nations can be regarded as separating the human types either justly or sufficiently (see Prichard, Natural History of Man, sec. z5; Waitz, Anthropology, vol.
The problem of ascertaining how the small number of races, distinct enough to be called primary, can have assumed their different types, has been for years the most disputed field of anthropology, the battle-ground of the rival schools of monogenists and polygenists.
- In examining how the science of language bears on the general problems of anthropology, it is not necessary to discuss at length the critical questions which arise, the principal.
To-day anthropology is grappling with the heavy task of systematizing the vast stores of knowledge to which the key was found by Boucher de Perthes, by Lartet, Christy and their successors.
It seems as if anthropology had in this direction reached the limits of its discoveries.
Tylor, Early History of Man (London, 1865), Primitive Culture (London, 1871), and Anthropology (London, 1881); A.
It comprises five faculties (literature and philosophy, jurisprudence, mathematics, natural science and medicine), and is well equipped with zoological, mineralogical and geological museums, a physiological institute, a cabinet of anthropology, and botanical gardens.